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Polycrystalline solar panel datasheet. Reviews

Polycrystalline solar panel datasheet. Reviews

    Photovoltaic modules operation in different weather conditions

    Solar energy is harnessed from the sun by photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight into electricity. The process of converting the sun’s rays into electricity is called the photoelectric effect. It presents as a sustainable source of energy that can reduce carbon emissions and tackle climate change. With the recent increase in extreme climatic conditions, a common concern for new solar system buyers is what will the effect of weather be on these panels. For the most part, there is little to worry about however sometimes different weather conditions might affect the performance of the panels. Before we get into the details of how different weather conditions affect the performance of the panels, we need to understand the main types of photovoltaic cells and what are the key differences between them, and how that influences the power output.

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    The PV market is currently dominated by monocrystalline and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells that arranged on a module as monocrystalline or polycrystalline solar panels. This article will FOCUS on the comparison of monocrystalline and multi-crystalline silicon panels under different weather conditions briefly. Before that, it is important to know the difference between monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cells. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels essentially perform the same function, i.e., capture sunlight and turn it into electricity. The key difference is the type of silicon structure they use. Figure 1 represents the structure difference in monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon. Monocrystalline solar cells are made from a single crystal of silicon. As a single continuous crystal, the electrons inside the cell can move quite easily generating more current and giving out higher cell efficiency. In the case of polycrystalline solar cells, they are manufactured with nonregular silicon structure as monocrystalline, then electrons cannot move quite easily which leads to reduced cell efficiency. Monocrystalline cells tend to be in black while polycrystalline cells tend to be in blue in the market.

    Monocrystalline solar panels are relatively a premium product compared to their polycrystalline counterpart as they are expensive to make so for this reason for the same wattage monocrystalline panels are a bit more expensive than polycrystalline panels. Figure 2 represents a comparison of polycrystalline and monocrystalline solar cells and panels respectively.

    Hot and Cold weather

    One common misconception that people assume is solar panels tend to work well under high temperatures. Even though the amount of sunlight hitting on the solar panel is directly proportional to the power output of the panel. In other words, the increasing temperature of the solar panels can have a decreasing effect on the efficiency. Solar panel temperature usually ranges from 15 – 35 C during which they produce maximum power. This loss is quantified in the manufacturer’s datasheet as temperature coefficient versus power. So, if a panel’s temperature is rated to have.0.50% per °C that panel’s output power will decrease by half of a percent for every degree the temperature rises about 25 °C. During a sunny day weather conditions, monocrystalline solar panels perform better than polycrystalline panels as monocrystalline panels have a better (lower) temperature coefficient compared to polycrystalline panels. This is because the loss of free carriers (electrons and holes) is dominant in polycrystalline cells at moderate and high temperatures, and it is not common in monocrystalline cells. Hot weather conditions will always mean less output. As for cold weather conditions, cold temperatures should not negatively impact the performance of the panels as long as the panels aren’t covered in snow.

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    On a cloudy day, the clouds block the sunlight and prevent them from hitting the solar panels that also includes fog, mist, and smog. This will tend to decrease the panel efficiency irrespective of whether they are monocrystalline or polycrystalline panels.

    Dust storms

    In areas where there are high dust storms for example like the middle east, the glass cover of the solar panels tends to be covered in dust storms which causes a gradual reduction of transmission coefficient. The transmission coefficient is defined as how much light passes through an optical surface; in our case it’s the front glass plane of the solar panels which thus leads to a reduction of panel efficiency. The best way to clean dusty panels is for to user to wash them away. Self-cleaning methods are also available while installing these panels.

    Hail occurs most frequently within continental interiors at mid-latitudes and is less common in the tropics It occurs in regions like parts of North America, central and southeastern Europe, etc. So, in regions like these you do not want your newly installed solar panels to get ruined by balls of irregular ice falling from the clouds, right? Well fortunately most manufacturers like AE Solar test and certify their solar panels to withstand hail up to one inch in diameter falling at 50 miles per hour. The average hailstorm drops hail from ¼ to ½ of an inch thick, traveling at just 20 miles per hour so rest assured today’s solar panels are also extremely resilient against heavy rain. The aluminum and the glass that hold the solar cells together are highly waterproof.

    5W Polycrystalline Solar Panel

    Description: PV Panel make: – Reputed Indian MNRE Make Specs: – Panel: Polycrystalline Wattage: – 335 WP

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    335W Polycrystalline Solar Panel

    Polycrystalline solar panels are the most traditional and popular type of solar panels available in the market. With an efficiency rate of 16% to 17%, the panels are highly cost-effective. And hence, they are the first choice of most solar consumers. 335w Polycrystalline Solar panel are highly demanded panels in the market. Polycrystalline solar panels are also known as poly solar panel, multi-crystalline or many-crystal silicon panels. Because there are many crystals in each cell. Poly crystal solar panels can be identified by their blueish appearance. Also, the panels have no round edges. In the outer structure of these panels, cells are square and the angles are uncut. Since the process of creating polycrystalline solar panels produces less waste and requires less energy, the price of these panels is relatively cheaper. In fact, the polycrystalline solar panels are the least expensive solar panels available.

    The characteristics of 335W Polycrystalline Solar Panel are discussed below-:

    Mechanical Characteristics

    Electrical Parameters

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    What are solar modules?

    Solar modules, also referred to as solar panels or PV modules, are an elementary component of photovoltaic systems. They have the task to transform incident solar rays into electrical energy. In order to achieve this, solar modules are made up of several layers. Inside the panel are the solar cells. In each solar cell is a semiconductor, which is responsible for the conversion of sunlight into usable energy. Semiconductors have substances that develop electrical conductivity in light and heat, whilst having an insulating effect during cold weather. The semiconductors used in solar cells are doped differently. That is, various chemical elements have been added to them so that they are either positively or negatively charged. One speaks of p-type semiconductor layers and n-type semiconductor layers. If two differently charged semiconductor layers meet, a so-called p-n junction is formed at the interface. Here an inner electric field is formed. In the case of solar radiation, electrical voltage is produced and delivered to connected consumer devices.

    On the cell layer is a layer of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) or cast resin. It protects the sensitive semiconductor against weathering, moisture and corrosion. There is also a protective layer below the solar module. This stabilizes the module structure and prevents stored heat loss. In order for the solar energy to be efficiently used, at least one of these layers must be slightly-permeable. A special solar glass plate is installed on top of the EVA layer. In order to achieve efficient energy production, these special requirements must be met: The glass must be thick enough to withstand wind and weather effects, and at the same time the incident light must not be absorbed and stored by the panel itself.

    How are solar modules manufactured?

    The production of solar modules and solar cells are based on the synthesis of silicon. Silicon is a component of sand or quartz and is therefore one of the most abundant substances on earth. With a degree of purity of well over 90 percent, silicon is considered a particularly pure substance. There are basically three types of solar modules: monocrystalline solar modules, polycrystalline solar modules and amorphous solar modules. These are different cell types and their differences can be traced back to the respective production methods.

    Monocrystalline Solar Modules

    In order to produce monocrystalline solar cells, the silicon oxide, which naturally occurs in the sand, is chemically reduced by the addition of carbon. This process takes place in a so-called arc furnace at a temperature of about 1.410 degrees Celsius. The result of this melt is a thin crystal rod, which is also referred to as a single crystal or monocrystal. The monocrystal is cut into very thin slices: with a thickness of 0.4 micrometers, the square slices are thinner than a human hair. The cut plate is called a Wafer. After the wafer has been chemically cleaned, the doping takes place: At temperatures of 800 to 1,000 degrees Celsius, silicon atoms are replaced by atoms with a different valence. This increases the conductivity and thus the efficiency of the wafer.

    Monocrystals are easily recognisable due to their dark appearance and rounded corners and have a particularly high efficiency due to their purity. Under ideal conditions this can be about 20 percent. Critics criticize the high energy expenditure required by the production of monocrystalline solar cells. Only after several years, such photovoltaic modules have a positive energy balance.

    Polycrystalline Solar Modules

    Polycrystalline solar cells are an alternative to monocrystals that are associated with a less complex production. In this method, liquid silicon is poured into prefabricated blocks and then cut into individual wafers. Here, they lose their single crystal structure, which is why they are significantly brighter than monocrystalline. Their efficiency is slightly lower at about 15 percent, but the simplified production process improves the energy balance and costs of manufacture.

    Half-Cut Modules

    Half cell modules, so-called Half-Cut are based on crystalline solar cells, which are cut into two identical halves by means of a laser process after cell production. When such half cells are used, 120 instead of the previous standard number of 60 cells are used per module. By halving the cell, possible power losses are reduced and an increase in performance of up to 2.5 percent is achieved. Cell division also increases the total area of the intercellular spaces on the module surface. As a result, the module becomes slightly longer, but the width remains unchanged.

    A further advantage of the HC module technology results from the string interconnection, which under certain circumstances and in comparison to standard modules, enables an increased performance with partial shading. The background is the use of 3 junction boxes which are placed in the middle of the module. This design allows a parallel connection of an upper and a lower string. If, for example, the lower area of the solar module is shaded in the morning hours, this will have less of an effect on the half-cell variant than on full-cell modules. For example, a half-cell module can still provide up to 50% of the total module output with partial shading. In addition, half-cell modules guarantee high reliability.

    Amorphous solar modules

    Amorphous solar cells are the most favorable variant. For their production, liquid silicon is evaporated onto a carrier material (e.g. glass). As a result, hardly any material is lost, and production and energy costs are comparatively low. The cells have an efficiency of about seven percent and are often found in calculators and clocks.

    From cell to solar module

    For manufacturing a PV module, up to ten wafers are soldered with a copper ribbon. A so-called string is created. In order to achieve high performance, the individual solar cells should have the same properties. After the assembly, the cells receive the protective layer and the characteristic blue antireflection layer. At around 900 degrees Celsius, the cells are provided with contact strips from above and from below. These later ensure that electricity can flow. Once the solar module has been provided with an aluminum frame, a power test is carried out. On the basis of the results, the performance of the solar panel can then be classified before it is sold.

    How Do I Read Solar Panel Specifications?

    There are several terms and ratings that are associated with a solar panel’s data sheet. Figuring out what means what for the specs can get pretty confusing. We are going to explain each of them to help clear it up.

    Standard Test Conditions (STC)

    STC is the set of criteria that a solar panel is tested at. Since voltage and current change based on temperature and intensity of light, among other criteria, all solar panels are tested to the same standard test conditions. This includes the cells’ temperature of 25° (77°), light intensity of 1000 Watts per square meter, which is basically the sun at noon, and the atmospheric density of 1.5, or the sun’s angle directly perpendicular to the solar panel at 500 feet above sea level.

    Normal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT)

    I don’t know about you, but I’ve been on a roof in the summer, and I can assure you, the solar panel cells are not 77°. They heat up much hotter than that in the sun, well over 100°.

    NOCT takes a more realist view of actual real world conditions, and gives you power ratings that you will likely actually see from your solar system. Instead of 1000 Watts per square meter, it uses 800 Watts per square meter, which is closer to a mostly sunny day with scattered clouds. It uses an air temperature of 20° (68°), not a solar cell temperature, and includes a 2.24MPH wind cooling the back of a ground mounted solar panel (more common in larger solar fields than a roof mounted residential array). These ratings will be lower than STC, but more realistic.

    Rated Output Specifications and Solar Panels

    Rated output for solar panels at different light intensities (W/m2). The “knee” of the curves is where the most power is produced, and the voltage current is optimized.

    Open Circuit Voltage (Voc)

    Open circuit voltage is how many volts the solar panel outputs with no load on it. If you just measure with a voltmeter across the plus and minus leads, you will read Voc. Since the solar panel isn’t connected to anything, there is no load on it, and it is producing no current.

    This is a very important number, as it is the maximum voltage that the solar panel can produce under standard test conditions, so this is the number to use when determining how many solar panels you can wire in series going into your inverter or charge controller.

    Voc will potentially be briefly produced in the morning when the sun first comes up and the panels are at their coolest, but the connected electronics haven’t woken up out of sleep mode yet.

    Remember, fuses and breakers protect wires against over-current, not over-voltage. So, if you put too much voltage into most electronics, you will damage them.

    Short Circuit Current (Isc)

    Short Circuit Current is how many amps (i.e. current) the solar panels are producing when not connected to a load but when the plus and minus of the panels wires are directly connected to each other. If you just measure with an ammeter across the plus and minus leads, you will read Isc. This is the highest current the solar panels will produce under standard test conditions.

    When determining how many amps a connected device can handle, like a solar charge controller or inverter, the Isc is used, generally multiplied by 1.25 for National Electrical Code (NEC) 80% requirements.

    Maximum Power Point (Pmax)

    The Pmax is the sweet spot of the solar panel power output, located at the “knee” of the curves in the graph above. It is where the combination of the volts and amps results in the highest wattage (Volts x Amps = Watts).

    When you use a Maximum Power Point Tracking MPPT) charge controller or inverter, this is the point that the MPPT electronics tries to keep the volts and amps at to maximize the power output. The wattage that a solar panel is listed as is the Pmax where Pmax = Vmpp x Impp (see below).

    Maximum Power Point Voltage (Vmpp)

    The Vmpp is the voltage when the power output is the greatest. It is the actual voltage you want to see when it is connected to the MPPT solar equipment (like an MPPT solar charge controller or a grid-tie inverter) under standard test conditions.

    Maximum Power Point Current (Impp)

    The Impp is the current (amps) when the power output is the greatest. It is the actual amperage you want to see when it is connected to the MPPT solar equipment under standard test conditions.

    Nominal Voltage

    Nominal voltage is the one that confuses a lot of people. It’s not a real voltage that you will actually measure. Nominal voltage is a category.

    For example, a nominal 12V solar panel has a Voc of about 22V and a Vmp of about 17V. It is used to charge a 12V battery (which is actually around 14V).

    Nominal voltages let people know what equipment goes together. They are like Geranimals® where you match the animals on the clothes labels to match the outfit (Editor’s note: most of us here at altE have no idea what the Geranimals® are that Amy is referring to but we’re hoping you guys can piece together what she’s putting down).

    A 12V solar panel is used with a 12V charge controller, a 12V battery bank, and a 12V inverter. 12V panels are becoming less common, in favor of 20V and 24V panels, but manufacturers like Rich Solar do still offer 12V solar panels. You can make a 24V solar array by wiring two 12V solar panels together in series or by using a 24V panel, which are now widely available from top PV manufacturers like Q Cells and Canadian Solar.

    12V solar panels charging a 12V battery with a traditional 12V PWM charge controller.

    It starts to get tricky when you move away from battery based solar systems, and the 12V increments are no longer necessary. Grid tie solar panels with 60 cells are often referred to as 20V nominal panels, like the Heleine 360W black monocrystalline solar panel.

    Polycrystalline solar panel working principle

    These solar panels are made of multiple photovoltaic cells. Each cell contains silicon crystals which makes it function as a semiconductor device. When the photons from the sunlight fall on the PN junction (junction between N-type and P-type materials), it imparts energy to the electrons so that they can flow as electric current. Here, P-type materials are deficient in electrons while N-type materials have an abundance of electrons. Two electrodes are connected to the PV cells. The electrode that is on the top surface contains small wires while the electrode on the bottom is a foil-like conductor.

    • Polycrystalline solar panels are more eco-friendly than monocrystalline solar panels as they do not require individual shaping and placement of each crystal and most of the silicon is utilized during production. So, very less waste is produced.
    • The acceptable maximum temperature of polycrystalline solar panels is 85 °C while the acceptable minimum temperature is.40 °C.
    • Polycrystalline solar panels have lower heat tolerance than monocrystalline panels. So, at higher temperatures, these solar panels have lower efficiency than others.
    • Polycrystalline solar panels have a higher temperature coefficient than monocrystalline panels.
    • These panels have a high power density.
    • They come with a structural frame of their own which makes mounting cheaper and simpler.

    Polycrystalline Solar Panel Applications

    Several advantages and disadvantages come with polycrystalline solar panels which are listed below.

    The advantages of polycrystalline panels are as follows.

    • Polycrystalline solar panel price is more affordable than monocrystalline panels due to being easier to make and using multiple silicon cells.
    • The amount of waste is less on the polycrystalline panel because of the way the silicon wafers are applied to the panel.
    • They can be used with batteries and inverter technology.
    • The manufacturing process requires very few fossil fuels.

    Here are some of the disadvantages of polycrystalline solar panels :

    • The efficiency of polycrystalline-based solar panels is less than monocrystalline solar panels because of the lower silicon purity.
    • Although the difference is getting smaller all the time, you generally need to cover a slightly larger area to output the same electrical power with polycrystalline solar panels as you would with the best monocrystalline solar panels.
    • They may not last as long.
    • They damage easily when exposed to high temperatures.

    Monocrystalline solar panels vs. polycrystalline solar panels

    The difference between monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cells in Hindi is as follows.

    • As the monocrystalline solar panel is constituted of a single crystal, it provides the electrons more space to move for a better electricity flow. This is the reason behind the higher efficiency of monocrystalline panels compared to polycrystalline panels.
    • The efficiency of polycrystalline solar panels is somewhat lower, but the benefit for customers is that this option is more affordable.
    • When you seek polycrystalline solar panels for sale. the sellers may highlight the blue hue of these panels compared to the monocrystalline panels’ black hue.
    • As polycrystalline solar panel manufacturers melt multiple silicon fragments together to produce the wafers for these panels, the electrons in each cell will have less space to move. This makes the efficiency ratings of polycrystalline solar panels lower.
    • Monocrystalline solar panel will be relatively more compared to polycrystalline solar panels.
    • According to some industry experts, monocrystalline solar panel systems have been known to break down if they are even marginally covered in snow or dust or if a part of the panel becomes shaded. Polycrystalline solar panels, on the other hand, are somewhat more resilient in these conditions.

    So, this is all you need to know about polycrystalline solar panels. If you enjoy this article, let us know what you think by leaving a comment in the comment section. We will be glad to have your viewpoint on the article. Is there any question we can help you with? Feel free to sign up on Linquip to get the most professional advice from our experts.

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