Jinko Eagle 72 JKM410M-72HL-V G2 410W Solar Panel
The Jinko Solar Eagle G2 JKM410M-72HL-V HM solar panel features 144 5-busbar Diamond Mono PERC half-cells that are PID Free and shade tolerant. They are certified for high snow (5400Pa) and wind (2400Pa) loads and have an IP67 Rated Junction Box for longevity in outdoor environments. Featuring High-voltage 1500V capability with UL IEC certification, you can run longer strings with lower balance of system costs and better LCOE.
Jinko Eagle 72 HM 410 G2 solar panels include a 10-year workmanship warranty and a 25-year linear power warranty.
Jinko Eagle JKM410-72HL-V Benefits
The JKM410M-72HL-V is suitable for commercial rooftop and ground mounted solar systems.
- 144 high-performance Diamond 5-busbar mono PERC half-cells
- UL and IEC 1500V certified; lowers BOS costs and yields better LCOE
- Reinforced cells prevent PID
- Excellent performance in low-light environments
- Certified for high snow and wind loads
Half Cell Modules
Eagle G2 JKM410M-72HL-V modules consist of half-cut Diamond cells. These uniquely designed cells feature high-efficiency mono PERC technology. Half cell modules have twin arrays and thus increased tolerance to shade. There’s also less current loss, for higher module power.
DuPont™ Tedlar ® Backsheet
Jinko Solar has a strategic relationship with DuPont™, the inventor of Kevlar, to incorporate its strong, durable Tedlar ® material into every one of Jinko’s Eagle G2 module backsheets. Tedlar is the only material proven to last more than 30 years in the field. Because backsheet failures represent a large problem in the field, many customers insist on Jinko Solar due to the proven materials they use.
Jinko Solar Eagle 72 HM G2 Certifications
- ISO9001:2008 Quality Standards
- ISO14001:2004 Environmental Standards
- OHSAS18001 Occupational Health Safety Standards
- IEC61215, IEC61730 certified
- UL1703 certified
- Module Fire Performance Type 1 (UL 1703)
10 Year Workmanship Warranty
25 Year Linear Power Warranty
Jinko Eagle 72 410W G2 Mono PERC Solar Module Review
Diamond Cell Technology
Uniquely designed high performance 5 busbar mono PERC half cell.
High Voltage 1500V
UL and IEC 1500V certified; lowers BOS costs and yields better LCOE.
Higher Module Power
Decrease in current loss yields higher module efficiency.
shade tolerance due to twin arrays.
Reinforced cell prevents potential induced degradation.
Certified for high snow (5400Pa) and wind (2400 Pa) loads.
The Jinko Solar Difference
An ideal solar panel manufacturer offers three key attributes: quality products, operational efficiency, and an unconditional commitment to its customers. Many manufacturers today offer one or two of these advantages; only JinkoSolar provides the whole package.
Jinko Solar has state-of-the-art, modern manufacturing facilities in Jacksonville, Florida and Penang, Malaysia that produce dependable, world-class solar panels with an unblemished quality record for the U.S. market. Jinko also has a near-perfect, on-time delivery rate, and the management resolve to remain a committed partner to their customers over the entire 25-year lifespan of all solar projects. Simply put, Jinko Solar always keeps their commitments.
Different solar panels, PV mount inverter available at low wholesale prices.
Contact us toll-free: (877) 297-0014. All Jinko Solar systems can be custom designed.
Contact us for sales, latest low price and expert assistance with the Jinko Eagle 72 410W G2 solar panel.
Jinko Solar Panel Review 2023
Jinko solar is one of the biggest names in the solar panel manufacturing industry. The company has predominantly been known to be the largest mass producer of budget friendly and reliable Tier 1 PV solar panels.
The Jinko company started back in 2006 in China with the aim of meeting the solar demand in the Chinese and Malaysian market. They started producing solar panels in 2009, and got listed into the stock exchange market in 2010. This move opened doors for their exponential growth in the international market.
The company runs 9 production facilities, and 14 overseas subsidies around the world, which have allowed them to produce enough panels for their global markets.
In 2019 alone, Jinko solar shipped a record 14.3GW globally, the most from any solar manufacturer.
For their workforce, the company continues to maintain a team of 15,000 workers, and several automation robots. This combined workforce has been a key reason for their Rapid growth.
Over the years, the company has been refining its solar panel quality.
Besides focusing on just cost-effectiveness, Jinko has, in the recent past, embraced more innovations earning them the coveted Intersolar Europe Award for Innovation with their Jinko Bifacial Swan Solar panel.
They’ve also received recognition from the prominent PVEL scorecards for their efficiency and constant ‘top score’ ratings.
Their success seems to stem from the rigorous durability testing, performance testing, research development and their quality control.
Presence in Australia
Jinko solar has opened several offices in Australia, from Sydney, to Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth.
This has improved its supply and distribution of their panels throughout the country and also helped improve the customer service to their customers.
Range of Jinko panels
Having been in the industry for many years, Jinko solar has come up with a wide range of affordable solar panels for all structures – whether residential, commercial or the utility-scale installations.
They also provide custom designed solar panels for larger solar systems for owners that need panels for specific uses.
Their most popular mono-crystalline solar panel series includes:
- The cheetah series
- Cheetah HC series
- Swan series
- Tiger series
- Tiger Pro series
The Cheetah Series
Jinko’s Cheetah series came to the market in 2018, and fast became the most popular solar panel model in their production. The series features panel range sizes from 325W to 340W for half-cut size and up to 410W for the full-size solar panel.
- Five busbar solar cell – Integrates the newer technologies to boost the solar modules efficiency and improve the panel’s aesthetic appearance.
- PID resistance – Amazing anti-PID performance that guarantees reduced power degradation which is great for mass production.
- High efficiency – Panels have a superior module efficiency of up to 20.38% thanks to the use of PERC (Passivated Emitter Rear Contact) technology.
- Low-Light Performance – Uses advanced glass and cell surface textured design which significantly enhances its performance under low-light conditions.
- Durability – The panel is certified by TUV NORD for its high salt-mist and ammonia resistance. It’s also certified to withstand extreme weather conditions including: wind load (2400 pascal) and snow load (5400 pascal).
All panels in this series come with a 25-year performance warranty and a product warranty of 15 years. Its degradation rate stands at 1% in the first year and 0.4% in the subsequent years until the 25 th year.
The Cheetah HC series refers to the cheetah Half cells range. These panels are an improvement over most cheetah solar panels. The panel’s key features are very similar to those of their predecessor, with several key advantages.
For one, the half-cell designs on these panels drastically improve their shading response. This improves the panel output during partial shading conditions.
Their module efficiency is also much better at 20.48% and the temperature coefficient has really improved, at.0.35%/ o C. This allows it to yield much more energy under higher temperatures compared to conventional panels.
Swan Bifacial series
Jinko Solar’s Swan bifacial series has been the talk of the industry for a while, after scooping the European Intersolar Award for innovation.
These panels incorporate the Cheetah HC, half-cut cell technology with a transparent back sheet that makes it more light-weight than other glass modules.
The two panels in this series are: Transparent Backsheet HC 5 Bus Bar – 72 cell and the Dual Glass HC 5 Bus Bar – 72 cells with frame.
Their power output is estimated to be 20-30% more than the regular monofacial modules. It generates up to 400W from the front side, with around 20% coming from the rear side.
- Five Busbar solar cell – Implements modern technology to improve the module’s efficiency while also enhancing its aesthetics.
- Higher power output – Module power increases by 5 – 25% per the different reflective conditions. Its efficiency goes as high as 19.78%.
- Excellent in low-light environments – Panels offer a lower LCOE and a higher IRR which ensures an excellent performance under low-light conditions.
- Longer lifetime yield – Their power degradation annually stands at 0.5% with a 30-year linear power warranty.
- PID Resistance – The Anti-PID performance guarantees limited power degradation for mass production. It’s also designed to handle high-voltage systems of up to 1500VDC, saving BOS cost.
- Strengthened mechanical support – Panels are manufactured with enough strength to support 5400pascal snow load and a 2400 pascal wind load.
This module can be used in numerous design solutions from Sun Rooms, highways, carports, sun track mounts to desert-covered circumstances.
The Tiger series has been the latest and most powerful addition to Jinko Solar’s solar panel range. The series features two shingle-cell solar panel types; The Tiger Monofacial and the Tiger Bifacial panels.
This ’next generation’ series uses Jinko’s N-Type monocrystalline silicon cells to boost its efficiency and output. Its module consists of a 78-cell design using the tiling ribbon technology developed by Jinko’s Research and Development team, which facilitates the reutilization of light absorption to increase the power generation.
The panels can generate up to 475W with a 21.16% efficiency.
- Tiling Ribbon tech half-cells – Combined use of the TR and half-cell technologies helps eliminate cell gaps and hence increases the module efficiency.
- Low-light Induced Degradation – Thanks to the N-type cells, light induced degradation (LID) is much lower compared to that of P-type cells.
- 9 Busbar solar cells – Instead of the usual 5 busbars, Tiger series panels use 9 busbars to reduce the distance between the bars and the finger grid line. This helps decrease the resistance power losses and hence improves efficiency.
- Fantastic low-light performance – Panels utilize the Half Cell technology to improve shading tolerance by splitting the full-cells to half. Performs well on cloudy, early mornings, and dusks.
- Longer lifetime yield – The panel modules degrade by 1% during the first year then maintain a 0.4% linear degradation.
- Best warranties – This series has the best warranty periods from Jinko with a 15-year product warranty and the 30-year linear power warranty.
- Weather resilience – The panels come certified to withstand snow load (5400pa) and wind load (2400pa).
Tiger Pro Series
Dubbed the ‘world’s most powerful utility solar panel’, this series from JinkoSolar has forever changed the solar panel market. The panel boasts of delivering up to 580Wp with an Ultra-high p-type mono-module efficiency of around 21.6%.
Like the Tiger series, this series also uses the Tilting ribbon technology and multiple bushbars with circular ribbon to get rid of inter-cell gaps and reduce current losses. This results in better efficiency and increased output.
Among the key benefits of the Tiger pro series includes improved temperature coefficient, reduced installation time and costs, and lower degradation rates.
This robust system can also save you around 1.41% of land space with a 500W solar module. This is a result of the high efficiency, which means you only need fewer panels to meet your demands.
Its high compatibility is also a key differentiator of this series. The Tiger pro solar panels are easily compatible with multiple inverters and mounting systems.
It works seamlessly with string and centralized inverters, and also fixed/one-in portrait configuration, two-portrait independent tracking systems and the multi-row interconnecting systems.
Finally, it’s product warranty now lasts for almost 25 years. For the monofacial warranty, the first year degrades by 2% and subsequent years, by 0.55%. For the bifacial, the first year degrades by 2% and other subsequent years by 0.45%.
Pros of Jinko solar panels
Being one of the global leaders in solar panel production, Jinko solar has a proven track record in Australia and other markets. Some of the key reasons for this includes:
Cost-friendly – Jinko solar is known to produce some of the most affordable Tier 1 solar panels in the market. The Cheetah series have been most popular for the reliability and cost. They are also recognized by the Australian Council of Energy, giving you access to the rebate program,
Good warranties – The Jinko panels all come with at least 10 years product warranty and a 25-year performance warranty.
Excellent durability – Jinko solar panels are all designed to withstand heavy winds and snow loads.
Most Jinko solar panels also occupy less space than the conventional solar panels. This makes it an easy choice for homeowners who need to fit many solar panels on their roofs.
Cons of Jinko solar panels
Despite its huge success in the Australian markets, Jinko solar panels are still far from perfect. While some of the newer Jinko panels have raked up efficiencies of approximately 20%, most panels have an average efficiency of 16.5%.
This explains why the panels are much cheaper than other Tier 1 panels in the market. efficient solar panels are usually more costly and tend to be better investments long term.
For homes with small roof space, Jinko solar panels may also not be the best choice for a panel. Due to their lower efficiency rating, their output may not be able to meet your daily energy demands.
Jinko may have not been the most efficient solar panels before, but it’s well on its way now. Just recently, the Chinese solar manufacturer announced that it achieved a world-record 24.79% efficiency on their newer n-type monocrystalline cell.
They also recently unveiled the 610W n-type solar modules showing that Jinkosolar will soon steal the show with regards to efficiency.
Generally, all Jinko solar panels come with a 10-year product warranty and a 25 – 30 performance warranty. The Tiger series is the only service with a longer product warranty at 15 years.
Jinko solar panel specification
Best alternatives to Jinko
If you don’t think Jinko Solar’s solar panels are a good fit for your home, there are still several other good solar panel brands in the Australian markets.
Depending on what you’re looking for in a solar panel, you have a host of options to choose from. Brands like:
Nevertheless, each of them has its own advantage and flaw over the other. Brands like LG, Q Cells and SunPower are making huge strides when it comes to efficiency. However, they tend to be quite expensive investments.
Other solar panels such as Panasonic, Tindo solar and Canadian Solar panels offer standard efficiency and their pricing is also cost-effective.
Keep in mind; there’s no one-fits-all solar panel for everyone. What works for another person may not always work for you. Therefore, if Jinko Solar doesn’t work for you, look for other equally good brands.
Yes. Jinko solar panels are widely regarded to be Tier 1. They have been producing electricity for close to two decades, and the company has been listed under the New York stock exchange since 2010. Jinko solar panels also have an extremely high degree of vertical integration.
Jinko solar is made by JinkoSolar Holding Co, Ltd. The company is currently the world’s largest solar panel manufacturer. Its headquarters are located in Shanghai, China.
In China. Since its inception in 2006, the Jinko Solar has primarily focused its production in China and Malaysia. Their distribution facilities can however be found in major cities around the world, including Australia.
Author: Ben McInerney is a renewable energy enthusiast with the goal of helping more Australians understand solar systems to make the best choice before they purchase. Having an accredited solar installer in the family helps give Ben access to the correct information, which allows him to break it down and make it easily understandable to the average homeowner.
Top 5 Most Efficient Solar Panels (2023 Reviews)
This guide has helped many homeowners learn about solar panel efficiency and can help you make the right choice when deciding on the most efficient option. Let’s get started!
Each product and or company featured here has been independently selected by the writer. You can learn more about our review methodology here. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.
Written by Karsten Neumeister
Karsten is an editor and energy specialist focused on environmental, social and cultural development. His work has been shared by sources including NPR, the World Economic Forum, Marketwatch and the SEIA, and he is certified in ESG with the CFA Institute. Before joining EcoWatch, Karsten worked in the solar energy sector, studying energy policy, climate tech and environmental education. A lover of music and the outdoors, Karsten might be found rock climbing, canoeing or writing songs when away from the workplace. Learn About This Person
Reviewed by Melissa Smith
Melissa is an avid writer, scuba diver, backpacker and all-around outdoor enthusiast. She graduated from the University of Florida with degrees in journalism and sustainability studies. Before joining EcoWatch, Melissa worked as the managing editor of Scuba Diving magazine and the communications manager of The Ocean Agency, a nonprofit that’s featured in the Emmy award-winning documentary Chasing Coral. Learn About This Person
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What Are the Most Efficient Solar Panels?
A solar panel’s efficiency rating tells you how much of the solar energy that hits your panels will be converted into usable electricity for your home. It’s not the only measure of a high-quality solar (PV) panel, but it’s one of the most important ones. Higher efficiency ratings mean your panels will generate more power in all conditions—full sun, partial sun and cloudy weather—which directly correlates to greater energy savings for you.
We’ve looked at every top-rated major solar panel brand and the panel models offered and have determined that the below panel brands have the highest efficiency ratings in the solar industry.
- Maxeon (formerly SunPower): Most Efficient Panels
- LONGi Solar: Best Value
- Jinko Solar: Best Budget Brand
- Canadian Solar: Best Product Selection
- REC: Best Availability
Not all of the panels manufactured by these companies have the same efficiency rating, and some models fluctuate by a few percentage points. Below are the specific models from each manufacturer we found to be the most efficient. Note that there’s a drop-down menu available for each of these brands in case you’re looking for more information.
The Maxeon 6 AC line of panels from Maxeon—which used to be SunPower—is best known for having the highest efficiency rating of any solar panel ever manufactured at 22.8%. Maxeon has been around for more than 35 years and has long had a reputation for outstanding quality and industry-defining technology. We recommend these panels to all homeowners who can afford them. They’re expensive, but they lead to the greatest savings over time and come with one of the best warranties available.
What We Like
The Maxeon 6 line of panels not only have the highest efficiency rating available, but they also now come with a massive 40-year equipment and production warranties, topping any other company we looked into. The standard in the clean energy industry is 25 years of coverage for production and manufacturer defects, and Maxeon offers 40 years of protection for both. That means ultimate peace of mind that your panels will continue performing as expected for decades.
Maxeon and its sister company, SunPower, are also known for their commitment to quality customer service, so we expect that any warranty claim you do make will be honored.
Lastly, for those who care about the appearance of these panels, these are all black without grid lines, so they’re about as sleek as you can get.
What We Don’t Like
The only bad thing we have to say about these Maxeon panels is that they’re more expensive than most other options. We do feel that the quality of the panels is well worth the investment, but they could be prohibitively costly for some solar customers.
Solar Panel Options
Maxeon currently manufactures two different lines of solar panels, both with inverters supplied by Enphase: the Maxeon 6 panels (AC) and the Maxeon 3 panels (DC).
- Maxeon 6 panels: As mentioned above, these panels have the highest efficiency rating in the industry at 22.8%. They generate the most power in all conditions of any other panel, and they’re backed by an incredible 40-year warranty. The 6 is a slightly more efficient solar panel than the 3.
- Maxeon 3 panels: Maxeon 3 panels have efficiency ratings up to 22.7%, but depending on the size of the panel you choose, that could be as low as 21.2%. The larger panel sizes come with the same 40-year warranty, but the smaller ones have the industry standard 25-year warranty.
All Maxeon panels come with at least 25 years of coverage for manufacturer defects and performance, but all of the Maxeon 6 panels and some of the Maxeon 3 options include the company’s 40-year warranty. This covers manufacturer defects and related issues, and it guarantees that your panels will retain 88.3% of their original efficiency in year 40. This coverage is far superior to the industry standard 25-year warranty.
Maxeon is going through some changes and is working on making its sister company SunPower its exclusive installer. However, SunPower currently outsources installation to certified third-party solar companies. There are local installation companies that are able to install Maxeon panels in all 50 states.
Founded in 2000, LONGi is the largest solar panel manufacturer in the world, with a market capitalization nearly triple that of any competitor. Not only is LONGi one of the most successful manufacturers, but it also manages to provide outstanding value at below-average costs. The Hi-Mo 6 Scientist panels from LONGi deliver top-of-the-line efficiency ratings, and although the warranty isn’t quite as good as other panels, the upfront savings you’ll see more than make up for it, in our opinion.
What We Like
The Hi-Mo 6 panels reach efficiencies of 22.6%, nearly matching the industry leader. That means LONGi solar panels will help bring down your energy bills more than most other brands on a monthly and annual basis. Best of all, LONGi panels cost around 2.40 per watt, which is well below what other brands at this efficiency rating and quality cost.
LONGi panels have a low power tolerance, which is a measurement of expected power production differential in real-world situations. The industry average is.5%/5%, and the Hi-Mo 6 Scientist model boasts a.3%/3% differential. That means you’ll see a lower production rate fluctuation, ultimately helping to maximize your energy savings over time.
What We Don’t Like
LONGi panels don’t have the best warranty coverage, which is really the only major downside to the brand. The Hi-Mo 6 Scientist panels come with only a 15-year warranty for manufacturer defects, whereas the industry standard is 25 years. The power production guarantee does meet the standard 25-year coverage, although the expected remaining efficiency rating after that time (88.9%) is a bit lower than some other brands that guarantee 92%.
Solar Panel Options
LONGi’s most recent innovation, the Hi-Mo 6 line of panels, is phasing out the Hi-Mo 4 and Hi-Mo 5 product lines. There are four different options within the new Hi-Mo 6 lineup.
|Efficiency Rating||Panel Type||Estimated Cost Per Watt||Power||Warranty||Best For|
|Hi-Mo 6 Scientist||Up to 22.6%||Monocrystalline||2.40||580W to 590W||15 to 25 years||Maximum efficiency|
|Hi-Mo 6 Explorer||Up to 22.1%||Monocrystalline||2.40||560W to 570W||15 to 25 years||Extreme climates|
|Hi-Mo 6 Guardian||N/A||Monocrystalline||2.40||N/A||15 to 25 years||Self-optimization|
|Hi-Mo 6 Artist||N/A||Monocrystalline||2.40||N/A||15 to 25 years||Unique appearance|
Of the manufacturers with the highest panel efficiencies, LONGi is the least impressive. It covers manufacturer defects for 15 years compared to the 25-year standard. The power production warranty—which helps ensure you continue to save money on your electric bills—is for the industry standard of 25 years. However, it guarantees 88.9% efficiency at the end of the warranty term, whereas other companies guarantee 90% or more.
Unlike Maxeon, LONGi doesn’t have any specific partnerships, so its products are widely available and can be installed by any solar contractor that chooses to offer them.
Jinko Solar is another giant in the industry that provides panels across the globe. It’s best known as a budget brand, although its panels are still considered to be tier-one. We recommend Jinko panels to solar customers who want to keep upfront installation costs down but still get a high-quality brand with an above-average efficiency rating. Much like LONGi, Jinko’s panel warranties aren’t the best.
What We Like
Jinko Solar’s size makes its products widely available throughout the U.S. Without any specific partnerships, its panels are available from hundreds of installers in every state. The average cost per watt for Jinko panels is around 2.25, making it the most affordable high-efficiency solar panel brand on our list.
Despite the low cost, Jinko panels are ranked quite high by PV Evolution Labs (PVEL), suggesting that the panels outperform many other brands in a variety of conditions. With a peak efficiency rating of 22.6%, Jinko’s panels are likely to boost your energy savings over less efficient options, all while saving you money on your installation.
What We Don’t Like
The biggest downside to Jinko Solar’s panels is the warranty coverage. Its performance warranty lasts the standard 25 years, but the degradation in the first year (2.5%) is higher than the industry average of around 2%. Plus, the remaining efficiency at the end of the term is just 80.7%, compared to the typical ~90% in other high-quality brands. The manufacturer’s warranty of 12 years also pales in comparison to the standard 25 years.
Solar Panel Options
Jinko currently manufactures three panel models in its Eagle lineup for U.S. customers: the Eagle G5, the Eagle G4 and the Eagle Continental. There are two additional product lines for other countries—Cheetah and Tiger—which are expected to come to the U.S. after testing.
|Efficiency Rating||Panel Type||Estimated Cost Per Watt||Power||Warranty||Best For|
|Eagle G5||Up to 21.13%||Monocrystalline||2.40||525W to 545W||12 to 25 years||Efficiency for U.S. Customers|
|Eagle G4||Up to 20.96%||Monocrystalline||2.40||380W to 400W||12 to 25 years||Value|
|Eagle Continental||Up to 19.88%||Monocrystalline||2.25||380W to 400W||12 to 25 years||Budget Panels in U.S.|
|Tiger Neo||Up to 22.6%||Monocrystalline||2.40||475W to 635W||12 to 25 years||High Efficiency Rating|
|Cheetah||Up to 20.16%||Monocrystalline||2.25||355W to 410W||12 to 25 years||Budget Panels Outside of U.S.|
Jinko Solar has decent warranty coverage, but it’s not ideal compared to what industry leaders like Maxeon are able to offer. Jinko provides just a 12-year warranty for the equipment and manufacturer defects, which is less than half of the industry average. The power performance warranty lasts for 25 years, which is average, although the solar degradation in that time — close to 20% — is double what you’d see from higher-quality panels.
As one of the world’s largest manufacturers, Jinko doesn’t have any specific partnerships with installers. Any solar panel installation company that chooses to install Jinko panels can do so without any specific certification. That means you should have a wide selection of installers available to you if you specifically want Jinko panels.
Canadian Solar is a large international manufacturer that has been in business since 2001, so it has more than 20 years of experience. Its products provide an outstanding blend of quality and affordability, although the average price per watt is a little above average. We’d recommend Canadian Solar panels to homeowners looking to balance power output with affordability.
What We Like
Canadian Solar not only manufactures one of the highest-efficiency panel models available, but it also provides budget options—specifically, polycrystalline solar panels with a lower efficiency. This helps keep solar as accessible as possible, which we love to see from any manufacturer.
The warranty coverage available for newer models is all in line with the industry standard in terms of length, so you should get decades of useful life and energy savings out of the company’s products.
Finally, Canadian Solar offers more than just panels. It serves other manufacturers with raw materials that help speed up the production and increase quality of off-brand products, as well as keep industry costs down. Overall, the company has a positive impact on the solar space.
What We Don’t Like
The warranty coverage for everything other than the new HiHero product lineup isn’t up to the industry standards. The HiHero panels come with an above-average 30-year performance warranty plus the typical 25 years of coverage for things like manufacturer defects. The efficiency remaining after the warranty term is below average, though, at 84.8%. Most other models only come with a 15-year equipment warranty, but they do have the standard 25-year coverage for equipment issues.
Solar Panel Options
Canadian Solar has a pretty impressive lineup of panels that fall within two product lines: the HiKu line and the HiHero line.
|Efficiency Rating||Panel Type||Estimated Cost Per Watt||Power||Warranty||Best For|
|HiKu||Up to 19.4%||Polycrystalline or Monocrystalline||2.70||360W to 465W||12 to 25 years||Affordability|
|BiHiKu||Up to 20.1%||Polycrystalline or Monocrystalline||2.70||435W to 460W||12 to 25 years||Affordability|
|HiHero||Up to 22.5%||Heterojunction (HJT)||3.20||420W to 445W||25 to 30 years||High Efficiency|
|Hiku 6||Up to 21.3%||Monocrystalline||2.90||445W to 555W||12 to 25 years||Balancing Efficiency and Price|
|BiHiKu 6||Up to 21.4%||Monocrystalline||2.90||520W to 550W||12 to 25 years||Balancing Efficiency and Price|
|HiKu 7||Up to 21.6%||Monocrystalline||3.00||640W to 670W||12 to 25 years||Small Roofs|
|BiHiKu 7||Up to 21.4%||Monocrystalline||2.90||640W to 665W||12 to 25 years||Small Roofs|
|TOPHiKu 6||Up to 21.4%||TOPCon Cell||2.90||420W to 570W||12 to 25 years||Balancing Efficiency and Price|
|TOPBiHiKu 6||Up to 21.4%||TOPCon Cell||2.90||555W to 575W||12 to 25 years||Balancing Efficiency and Price|
|TOPBiHiKu 7||Up to 21.4%||TOPCon Cell||2.90||615W to 695W||12 to 30 years||Small Roofs|
If you purchase the highest-efficiency panels from Canadian Solar—the HiHero model—you get a standard 25-year product warranty plus a 30-year power production guarantee. The degradation is more significant in these panels than average at this price point, but the warranty length is still better than most companies offer.
Other models come with a 12-year product warranty, which is less than half of what most other manufacturers provide. Most come with a 25-year production warranty—again with a faster rate of efficiency degradation than average—except for the TOPBiHiKu 7 model, which gets a 30-year efficiency warranty.
Canadian Solar doesn’t have any specific partnerships with U.S. installers, so its products are available in most areas from a massive selection of contractors. Plus, Canadian Solar is one of the few manufacturers with a vertical product line, which means its high-efficiency solar cells and other products make their way into off-brand panels. You could, therefore, end up with Canadian Solar technology even if you don’t specifically buy panels from the company.
REC is a solar manufacturer based in Norway with a massive presence throughout the U.S. By the company’s own statistics, it is the largest provider of photovoltaic (PV) modules to the United States, which is, in large part, why we think REC has some of the best solar panel availability in the country. Not only are its products widely available, but the company maintains above-average efficiency ratings across all of its products. We recommend REC panels to homeowners who want easily accessible options that will help maximize energy savings over time.
What We Like
REC’s performance specs and availability make it a go-to option for countless installers in the U.S., which means its products are available virtually anywhere you live. The company uses heterojunction (HJT) technology to keep panel efficiency high, which means REC panels save you more on energy bills than the average PV equipment.
REC’s warranty coverage is also quite good, with a 25-year power production warranty guaranteeing 92% of the original efficiency at the end of the warranty term for most panel models. That’s in line with other top performers in the industry.
REC panels also have a great temperature coefficient, losing just 0.26% efficiency per degree (C) above 25 degrees (77 degrees in Fahrenheit). That means REC panels are a great option for maintaining those high efficiency ratings and energy savings even in more extreme climates.
What We Don’t Like
The only real downside to REC panels is that they’re a bit on the expensive side. The high-end models cost around 3.20 per watt, before any solar tax credit is considered. The cheaper options with less impressive specs average as low as 2.50 per watt, though, so the company maintains options that will be suitable for most solar customers.
Solar Panel Options
REC has five primary product lines available that do a good job of providing something for everyone. This is yet another reason why we think REC is one of the most widely accessible brands in the industry.
|Efficiency Rating||Panel Type||Estimated Cost Per Watt||Power||Warranty||Best For|
|Alpha Pure-R||Up to 22.3%||Heterojunction (HJT)||3.20||410W to 430W||25 years||High Efficiency|
|Alpha Pure||Up to 21.6%||Heterojunction (HJT)||3.20||385W to 410W||25 years||Warranty Coverage|
|N-Peak 3||Up to 20.3%||Monocrystalline||2.80||390W to 400W||20 to 25 years||Balancing Efficiency and Cost|
|N-Peak 2||Up to 20.3%||Monocrystalline||2.80||360W to 375W||20 to 25 years||Balancing Efficiency and Cost|
|TwinPeak 4||Up to 20.5%||Monocrystalline||2.50||360W to 375W||20 to 25 years||Affordability|
For the top-of-the-line products, including the Alpha Pure and Alpha Pure-R series, REC provides a 25-year warranty for the equipment, production and labor in case a panel needs to be serviced. All other products include a 20-year equipment warranty, which is just below the industry average, and a 25-year production warranty, which is right in line with the average term.
However, the company guarantees 92% efficiency will remain after the efficiency warranty term, which is better than most companies and in line with the best options in the solar space.
The best part about REC, in our opinion, is that it’s one of the top producers of panels in the U.S. Without being beholden to a single installer, just about any solar contractor can install REC panels, meaning the products should be available regardless of where you live.
REC does offer a superior warranty if you have your panels installed by a REC-certified installer, so keep that in mind if you know you do want REC panels.
What Should You Look for When Choosing High-Efficiency Solar Panels?
Aside from your installer making sure your solar system is sized properly for your home and energy consumption, choosing high-efficiency panels is the best way to maximize your solar savings and ensure you don’t end up paying for a solar array and a high monthly electric bill.
However, it’s not as simple as picking the panel with the highest efficiency rating. There are a few other things to consider that could change which option is actually best for your particular home. The infographic below includes a quick look at some of the most crucial things to think about that contribute to how well solar panels work in real-world conditions as opposed to standard testing conditions in a lab.
Compare the Top-Rated High-Efficiency Solar Panels
Overall, our top recommendations if you’re looking for high-efficiency panels are the Maxeon 6 panels from Maxeon and the Alpha Pure-R panels from REC. You might notice that our second pick actually has the fifth-highest efficiency, and that’s because we considered other crucial factors like degradation rate warranty coverage.
The table below includes some additional information about these two panel models to help you decide which of these is the right option for your solar project. We’ll also include info for our top panel recommendation from the other providers on our list for comparison.
|Efficiency Rating||Power Output||Temperature Coefficient (per degree C over 25)||Power Tolerance||First-year Degradation||Subsequent-year Degradation||Efficiency After 25 Years||Total Warranty Term (for Efficiency)|
|Maxeon 6||Up to 22.8%||410W to 440W||-0.29%||0/5%||2%||0.25%||92%||40 years|
|LONGi Hi-Mo 6 Scientist||Up to 22.6%||580W to 590W||-0.29%||0/5%||1.5%||0.5%||86.5%||25 years|
|Jinko Solar Tiger NEO||Up to 22.6%||475W to 635W||-0.29%||0/3%||1%||0.4%||89.4%||30 years|
|Canadian Solar HiHero||Up to 22.5%||420W to 445W||-0.26%||0/10%||1%||0.55%||85.8%||30 years|
|REC Alpha Pure-R||Up to 22.3%||410W to 430W||-0.26%||0/5%||2%||0.25%||92%||25 years|
Compare the Top-Rated High-Efficiency Solar Panel Manufacturers
As far as the best manufacturers overall for high-efficiency panels, we’d have to choose Maxeon again as our number one recommendation, although our second spot goes to LONGi. All of Maxeon’s panel models come with superior warranty coverage, reliability and durability, and LONGi is a great low-cost option that still brings plenty of value for the money.
The table below includes a side-by-side look at the product lines as a whole from these providers and the others that topped our list. We’ll include scoring for each based on our methodology, which will be explained in greater depth later in this article.
|Efficiency Score (Out of 25)||Durability Score (Out of 20)||Warranty Score (Out of 20)||Price Point Score (Out of 20)||Temperature Coefficient (Out of 10)||Sustainability Score (Out of 2.5)||Appearance Score (Out of 2.5)||Our Overall Rating (Out of 100)|
TOPCon Solar Cells: The New PV Module Technology in the Solar Industry
Solar cell technology used to manufacture photovoltaic (PV) modules is constantly evolving as new, more advanced and more efficient technologies are developed. Tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCon) solar cell technology is a new development with the potential to replace passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) and high-efficiency passivated emitter, rear totally-diffused (PERT) solar panels.
TOPCon solar cells represent an upgraded and more efficient technology compared to PERC/PERT solar cells, featuring a highly similar structure.
In this article, we will explain important details on this technology, going from the basics, structure and manufacturing, comparison against other popular technologies in the solar industry, advantages and disadvantages, and more.
TOPCon solar cell technology: Understanding the basics
TOPCon solar cell technology is one of the latest trends in the solar industry, developed as an upgraded and more advanced version of the PERC/PERT technology. One of the main advantages of TOPCon solar cells is that the structure is only slightly different from PERC/PERT solar cells, meaning that manufacturers can use practically the same production line with a few improvements to produce TOPCon solar cells.
TOPCon solar cell technology was first introduced as a concept in 2014 by the Fraunhofer ISE German PV research institute. The project designed to develop this technology took place from 2013 to 2016, but it was not until 2019 that companies like Trina Solar scaled it to production. As TOPCon solar cell technology proved as a successful upgrade from PERC solar cells, many other companies including LONGi Solar, Suntech, Canadian Solar, and many others got interested in it.
The main setback of this new technology compared to PERC/PERT is that the TOPCon solar cells require a larger amount of silver (Ag) for production. This silver increase translates into a higher manufacturing price; however, new developments might prove successful in reducing the required amount of silver, while still delivering similar or even higher efficiencies and reducing production costs.
Structure and manufacturing of TOPCon solar cells
TOPCon solar cell technology features a similar structure and manufacturing process to PERC solar cells, featuring only a few additional steps. In this section, we explain how both of these work:
Structure of the TOPCon solar cell
TOPCon solar cells can be manufactured as n-type or p-type solar cells, but the n-type variation has proven to be more efficient and resistant to impurities. Because TOPCon solar cells are an upgrade from PERC/PERT solar cells, it is important to understand the structure of this new technology.
PERT solar cells are manufactured with an n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) bulk layer because of its higher surface quality and it is coupled with a p emitter layer to create the p-n junction. The emitter layer is covered with an aluminum oxide (Al2O3) passivating layer and topped with a silicon nitride (SiNx) coating for its anti-reflecting properties. PERC solar cells replace the absorber layer with a p-type bulk layer and an n emitter for the p-n junction.
The lower part of the bulk region is doped with phosphorous to create the back surface field, and it is then coated with SiNx similar to the top of the cell. Both the top and bottom of the solar cell are equipped with silver (Ag) or aluminum (Al) contacts to close the circuit when the cell is being connected to the load or other cells at the time of manufacturing the PERC/PERT solar panel.
The PERC/PERT solar cell structure has proven to be quite efficient since it was introduced to the market and implemented to manufacture PV modules, but researchers found ways to improve it and therefore created the TOPCon solar cell.
The TOPCon solar cell structure takes the base structure of the PERT solar cell but includes an ultra-thin silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer working as the tunnel oxide layer and replaces the back surface field layer with phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (n Poly-Si) layer. These modifications have improved the efficiency by reducing the recombination process thanks to the passivation in the added layers.
Manufacture of a TOPCon solar cell
One of the best things about TOPCon solar cell technology is that the manufacturing process is so similar to that of PERT solar cells that manufacturers will only have to make a little investment to upgrade their existing production line. Most of the manufacturing equipment can remain the same. This makes TOPCon solar cells an excellent investment for PERC/PERT PV module manufacturers already in the market.
- The first step to manufacturing a TOPCon solar cell is chemically texturing the wafer surface by using a potassium hydroxide (KOH) to remove saw damage from the cutting process of the c-Si wafer.
- After cleaning the wafer, the diffusion method is used to form the emitter on the front side of the cell by applying a boron tribromide (BBr3) gas, but then the backside emitter is removed by applying a nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid (HF/HNO3) solution, and the ultra-thin oxide layer is produced through wet chemical dipping.
- To grow the n Poly-Si layer, a phosphorous-doped amorphous silicon (n-a-Si:H) layer is grown through a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. This is then transformed into the n Poly-Si layer after annealing at 900ºC.
- The solar cell is cleaned further, and the passivation and coating layers are applied through PECVD.
- Finally, the Ag/Al contacts are applied through screen printing for the metallization using a quick-firing method with a maximum temperature of 760ºC.
After the TOPCon solar cells are manufactured, I-V solar cell curve characterizations are performed to evaluate their performance.
There are only a few additional steps required to manufacture a TOPCon solar cell instead of the PERT solar cell, making this new technology financially attractive for the solar industry.
How do TOPCon solar cells compare against the most popular PV technology in the market?
TOPCon solar cell technology is quite promising, having the potential to rapidly grow within the solar industry. When considering a new rising technology like this one, it is important to analyze it against other popular PV technologies in the market. In this case, we will compare TOPCon solar cell technology against PERC and heterojunction (HJT) solar cell technologies.
Advantages disadvantages of TOPCon solar cells
TOPCon solar cells feature a few differences from PERC/PERT solar cells but greatly improve performance. In this section, we present the advantages and disadvantages of TOPCon solar cells.
Little capital investments for PERC/PERT manufacturers
TOPCon solar cell technology is an upgrade of PERC/PERT solar cells, featuring two additional steps. This little difference between both technologies, allows manufacturers of PERC and PERT solar cells to upgrade to TOPCon by adding only a few pieces of equipment for a little investment.
Higher efficiency reported by several manufacturers
One of the main features of TOPCon solar panels is the higher efficiency achieved. According to the Fraunhofer ISE institute, efficiencies can go beyond 25%. This has already been proved by PV manufacturers like LONGi, Jinko Solar, and others, with a high efficiency of 26.1%.
Better performance as a result of a lower temperature coefficient
Traditional PV modules feature a temperature coefficient of 0.4%/℃-0.5%/℃, while PERC PV modules perform better by taking that coefficient slightly under the 0.4%/℃ frame. TOPCon PV modules manufactured by Jinko Solar, on the other hand, have already proven to take the temperature coefficient to less than 0.3%/℃, highly improving their performance in many extreme weather scenarios.
15% higher bifacial factor
The bifacial factor for PERC PV modules has been determined on average to be at around 70%. TOPCon solar panels, on the other hand, have proven to take the bifacial factor up to 85%. This increased bifacial factor can increase power gains by as much as 2%.
Several challenges in the manufacturing process
TOPCon solar cell technology is still facing several challenges in the manufacturing process. Some of these include different opinions on the best technique for boron deposition, different requirements for clean room conditions that have to be met, and the inability of the current selective emitter to apply to the TOPCon front emitter. For the solar industry to advance with TOPCon, these issues should be addressed.
There is little data about mass production, limiting the roadmap for the future
Different companies upgrading their PERC/PERT lines of production to TOPCon solar cells have taken different routes, but since there is limited mass production, the roadmap for this technology is still under development. As major companies like Trina Solar, LONGi, and others start to tackle major problems and find optimal ways to produce TOPCon solar cells, the roadmap will become clearer.
Higher silver requirement equals higher price
One of the major issues of TOPCon solar cells is a higher requirement of silver to print the contacts on the cell. The ideal option to reduce costs would be to increase efficiency while maintaining current costs. Lowering the costs for this technology is imperative to hit the market at reasonable prices.
Market trends featuring TOPCon solar cells
The market trends have shifted in the last decade from back surface fields (BSF) solar panels to PERC solar cell technology, and now it seems to be shifting to TOPCon solar panels. Initially, BSF solar panels ruled the market, but manufacturers began the adoption of PERC solar cell technology and the market share grew until hitting 40% in 2018, and almost 75% by 2021. Since TOPCon solar cell technology is a cost-efficient upgrade from PERC/PERT solar cells, this new technology may soon rule the market.
In 2021, LONGi announced a new record for high-efficiency n-type solar panels at 25.21% featuring TOPCon solar cell technology. Little after that, Jinko Solar announced an even higher efficiency record at 25.4%. In 2022, Trina Solar broke the record with an efficiency of 25.5%, while Canadian Solar also reached a high efficiency of 25.0% that same year. By the end of 2022, Jinko Solar broke the record two times in a row, first reaching 25.7% and then 26.1%.
Many PV manufacturers will start to fill the market with TOPCon solar panels as they design and release their products. LONGi launched its bifacial TOPCon solar panels at the SNEC 2021, and Suntech released its Ultra VPro Series in 2022, but it seems that 2023 will be the year when most PV manufacturers release their products. Jinko Solar unveiled three different TOPCon solar panel variants with a power rate going from 445W to 635W, Canadian Solar is also hitting the market with solar panels that go up to 690W, and Trina Solar unveiled its new TOPCon solar panels that go up to 445W.
These are only some of the largest manufacturers, but as the technology advances, other major companies in the solar industry will also release TOPCon solar panels. There is a considerable possibility that as TOPCon solar cell technology becomes more popular, PERC solar panels will start to give way to TOPCon to increase its market share and presence in the industry.
Present and future of TOPCon solar cells
TOPCon solar cell technology is a revolutionizing product that upgrades the design of the PERC/PERT solar panels.
This technology has already proven its worth by reaching efficiencies that approach the Shockley-Queisser limit for single p-n junction solar cells and deliver a better performance in general.
The solar industry is starting to get acquainted with TOPCon solar cell technology. LONGi already launched its bifacial modules in 2021, but most manufacturers will be releasing their high-efficiency TOPCon solar panels from the second (Q2) to the last quarter (Q4) of 2023.
It is possible that at first, TOPCon solar cell technology will have slightly more expensive costs than PERC/PERT solar panels, but analysts expect that the cost for TOPCon solar panels will fall lower than the current cost of PERC solar cell technology.
The path for TOPCon solar cell technology is also not entirely free from competition. There are other technologies featuring an interesting great potential to go against this newly upgraded technology, including HJT as it is further developed, and interdigitated back-contacted (IBC) solar cell technology.