Introducing the Global X Solar ETF (RAYS)
On September 9th, 2021, we listed the Global X Solar ETF (RAYS) on Nasdaq. RAYS seeks to invest in companies positioned to benefit from the advancement of the global solar technology industry. This includes companies involved in solar power production; the integration of solar into energy systems; and the development/manufacturing of solar-powered generators, engines, batteries, and other technologies related to the utilization of solar as an energy source.
Planet Earth’s climate is changing for the worse. Human-produced emissions and resulting increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driving long-term temperatures upward, resulting in negative environmental impacts that come with existentially concerning externalities. However, just as human activity bears the onus of our current climate predicament, human innovation and investment could limit it from worsening. Decarbonization is among the most pressing and globally shared objectives of the 21 st century. We can only achieve this by phasing out fossil fuels and accelerating the adoption of clean and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Such a transition will require tens of trillions of dollars of investment in the coming decades, improving the underlying technologies of solar power, among other sources, and solidifying the economic case for a clean energy future.
In the following piece, we investigate the global climate crisis and evaluate the role clean and renewable energy sources like solar power should play in addressing it.
- Heightened levels of atmospheric CO2 and related temperature increases threaten lives, livelihoods, and Earth’s natural environment. Limiting warming to 1.5 °C above preindustrial levels through emissions reductions can mitigate many of the negative impacts of climate change. 1
- Decarbonization and phasing out emissions-heavy fossil fuels can be achieved by transitioning to clean and renewable energy sources like solar power. This would entail tens of trillions of dollars of investment in underlying/enabling technologies and incentives, decreasing costs and driving adoption.
- Renewable and clean energy sources like solar power are continuing to gain fossil fuel-based sources as related technologies become more affordable. We expect to see continued penetration, driven by electrification, economies of scale, and climate action.
Setting the Stage: The Global Climate Crisis
Temperatures on Earth are reaching new heights. The past four decades were successively hotter than all preceding ones dating back to at least 1850, and the average temperature from 2011-2020 was ~1.09 °C warmer than that of 1850-1900 (preindustrial period). 2 Almost all of this warming is the direct result of heightened atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, primarily of CO2, irrespective of source (human-produced or not). 3,4 For the first time in history, the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) called this causal relationship “unequivocal” in their landmark 2021 report (AR6). 5 GHGs act as atmospheric insulators, absorbing heat from the Earth’s surface and releasing it over time. Naturally occurring GHGs are what kept the planet warm enough for habitation and were regulated by ocean absorption and plant photosynthesis. Today, though, GHG levels are far from natural and the planet cannot keep up.
Atmospheric data reveal that the average concentration of CO2 from 2010-2019 was 43% higher than the preindustrial average, increasing from 289.3 parts per million (ppm) to 410 ppm. 6 This increase occurred 100x faster than any known natural increase, including the several-thousand year period that ended the most recent ice age. 7 And in 2019, CO2 concentrations reached levels higher than at any point in the past 2 million years. 8 That this began shortly following the industrial revolution in the 20 th century is no coincidence. Anthropogenic (human-produced) emissions are almost solely responsible for heightened GHG levels and resulting temperature increases (/- 0.1°C to account for the presence/lack of natural GHGs). The burning of fossil fuels for energy is the primary culprit. Since 1990, fossil-fuel energy sources produced 74% of annual CO2 emissions, on average. 9,10
The impacts of emissions and warming are already in effect, and all at once: 11
- The intensity and frequency of extreme temperatures and heatwaves on land have increased since the 1950s, while ocean heatwaves have doubled since the 1980s.
- Heavy precipitation events have become more frequent and intense since the 1950s. Somewhat counterintuitively, agricultural and ecological droughts have also increased since then as a result of warmer temperatures.
- Over the past 100 years, oceans warmed faster than they did in the 11,000 years prior, resulting in retreating glaciers and melting sea ice. Relatedly, sea levels rose faster than over any comparable time-period in the 3,000 years prior. Oceans are also getting more acidic due to heightened CO2
- Hurricanes have become more frequent over the past 40 years, beyond what can be explained by natural variability. Warmer oceans and rising sea levels make these storms more intense and damaging, also moving them northward as warmer temperatures introduce new breeding grounds.
Connected through the water cycle, among other systems, these impacts are resulting in devastation from natural disasters to water scarcity, and food shortages, all of which threaten lives, livelihoods, and global economies (see our research on Clean Water AgTech Food Innovation for related analysis). 12 This is just with ~1.1°C of warming. Under the emissions policies in place as of 2021, temperatures in 2100 could fall in the range of 2.1-3.9°C above preindustrial levels. 13 Just 2°C of warming would significantly increase the intensity and frequency of extreme “once-every-ten-year” weather events, with extreme heat events occurring 5.6x more often and 2.6°C hotter, extreme precipitation 1.7x more often and 14% wetter, and extreme droughts 2.4x more frequently and 0.6 standard deviations drier (in terms of soil moisture). 14 The impact on human life would be immeasurable. Clearly, current interventions are not enough.
The IPCC AR6 report referenced in this document refers to the IPCC Working Group I report, the first published installment of AR6. AR6 is IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report on the scientific basis of climate change. It is authored by 234 scientists (all of the UN’s 195 member countries can nominate scientists) who summarized and analyzed all peer-reviewed climate-science research published through January 2021 (14,000 peer). Prior to publication, the report was subject to its peer review both from the involved scientists and governments to ensure non-partisanship and accuracy.
Clean Renewable Energy as a Solution to Climate Change
2016’s Paris Agreement formalized the legally binding goal of limiting warming to well below 2°C warmer than preindustrial levels. The agreement highlights 1.5°C of warming as an achievable objective that would drastically limit the above-mentioned impacts of climate change. Climate change has moved quickly since 2016 and the emissions pathway related to 1.5°C of warming is narrower than ever, according to AR6. Yet, AR6 still presents a 1.5°C scenario as achievable if emissions peak in the 2020s and decline to net-zero by 2050, after which net negative emissions, enabled by carbon capture technologies, would be required. 15 The aggressive adoption of renewable energy production and clean technologies is essential to every step of this pathway.
Existing legislation, commitments, and targets would require US98T of total investment between 2021 and 2050, with US10T directed to renewable energy, US13T to renewable energy-enabling electric infrastructure for transportation and heat (see following section for explanation), US32T to energy efficiency technologies, and the remainder to fossil fuels. 16 While this is considerable and should benefit companies involved in producing renewable energy and clean technologies in the near- and long-term, acceptable warming paths will likely require substantially more.
IRENA’s implementation-focused 1.5°C scenario estimates that overall investment should increase to US131T over the same period, significantly increasing the proportions directed to renewable energy and electrification (see chart). 17 By 2050, such investment, alongside prudent implementation, could bring net annual emissions down to.0.4 Gigatons of CO2 (GtCO 2 /yr), a significant improvement from the 36.5 GtCO2/yr that is likely on our current pathway. 18
Since the adoption of the Paris Agreement, six countries passed carbon-neutrality targets into law, and five countries/regions, including the EU, Canada, and South Korea, have begun evaluating proposed legislation in the same vein. Twenty-four other countries, including the United States and China (which together produce 36.8% of global emissions), have climate targets set as official policy, but have stalled on taking more meaningful action. 19 Yet, we expect to see investment in renewables and clean technology above what current policy suggests, regardless of future government action. And while binding legislation and immediately observable action are what we hope for, these technologies make sense from an economic and business standpoint:
- Employment in the renewable energy sector is rapidly growing and should continue to increase as the transition away from fossil fuels continues (see following sections), especially in a world that is still reeling from the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Over 75% of the global population lives in a country that is a net importer of fossil fuels. For these people and countries, renewable energy could provide energy independence. 20
- Renewable electricity is becoming cheaper than electricity produced by fossil fuels (see following sections). For this reason and others, companies like Amazon and Walmart, among others, have already announced plans to decarbonize using renewable energy and clean technologies. 21
Solar Power: Past Present
The solar panels (also called modules) that comprise utility-scale solar plants (also called farms), residential installations, and other settings, feature photovoltaic (PV) cells made of semiconducting material. Typically, this material is polycrystalline silicon, which captures energy through the photovoltaic effect, a process in which light from the sun, or photons, knock electrons on the silicon loose, generating an electric current. For most end-uses, this electricity must run through a solar inverter, a device that converts it to AC power, before consumption.
Just over a decade ago, when clean energy sources’ share of the power mix was just 10%, hydroelectric sources like dams and run-of-the-river power generators represented the lion’s share of renewable power generation – hydroelectric power represented 82% of all renewable power generation in 2010, while wind and solar power represented just 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. 22 Hydropower alone, however, was never meant to be the sole keystone of a clean energy future. Hydroelectric energy sources are restricted by location and an already-prominent reliance on hydroelectric power limits its growth. From 2010 to 2019, hydroelectric power generation grew by 23%, outpacing the growth of overall energy consumption by 8%, but not growing enough to significantly capture traditional energy source market its own. 23
Much has changed since 2010, though, and clean energy sources’ share of global electricity production in the power sector gained significantly, reaching 29% in 2020, 2% more than at the end of 2019 and almost 10% more than at the end of 2010. 24 Wind and solar power are proving to be the previously missing pieces to the global transition to renewable energy. Looking at solar power, the installed capacity of solar energy sources increased by 17.6x (1,763%) between 2010 and 2020, from 40.1 gigawatts (GW) to 707.5 GW. 25 And today, solar energy sources produce 3.3% of all global electricity, representing 11.5% of renewable power generation. 26
Much of this recent growth can be attributed to innovation and rapidly decreasing costs of underlying technologies. Solar cells and solar inverters are the primary cost components of solar PV, aside from installation, and they are getting more affordable as time goes on. At the end of 2020, the going average price for a solar PV module was 0.301 per kW versus 2.73 at the end of 2010. 27 This improvement is the result of economies of scale and innovation in these technologies driving the total installed cost of solar projects down by 81% over that period. 28 We can contextualize this by looking at the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of solar PV, which refers to the revenue required to build and operate a power source over a specified cost recovery period. Over the past ten years, the LCOE of solar PV decreased 85%, making it more affordable than fossil fuels in most of the world. 29
What the Future Could Hold for Solar Power
We expect to see continued growth of solar power generation as economies of scale, greater investment, supportive policies, and market forces further reduce the cost of components, installation, and operation of solar power sources. The lifetime costs of solar modules are continuing to fall as innovations in PV cells improve efficiency. The first solar panel was created in 1954 with 4% efficiency, meaning 1/25th of absorbed sunlight would become electricity, while the rest would escape as heat. 30 Nearly 70 years later, that efficiency is roughly 20%, a meaningful jump when it comes to cost savings, but still below the theoretical limit of around 30% for single-junction solar cells. 31 Multi-junction cells, or those comprised of multiple semiconducting materials, present the opportunity to lower costs even further. These cells have a maximum theoretical efficiency of 87%, but at this point are early stage. 32
Further, investment in enabling technologies should drive growth for all renewable and clean energy sources. Electricity only represents 37% of total final energy consumption (TFEC), with the majority of this produced directly by the power sector. This means the remaining 63% of TFEC comes from the direct combustion of fossil fuels in transportation, buildings, and industry. 33 Electrified end-uses can be decarbonized by transitioning the power sector to renewable energy sources, but for non-electrified end-uses like those just mentioned, decarbonization is only possible through direct or indirect electrification. Direct electrification entails transitioning away from fossil fuel-powered vehicles and building heating systems to those that run on electric power. With this in mind, renewables and electrification should be viewed as complementary.
Full renewable energy penetration can only be achieved through electrification, while further electrification is very dependent on renewable electricity. Following this thread, further scaling electrification and renewable energy production can play an outsized role in helping achieve global carbon neutrality goals. According to some estimates, substituting fossil-fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas with clean alternative energy sources could reduce emissions by 52% of what is needed to adequately limit warming. 34
Investing in Solar
Addressing climate change through decarbonization is a critical challenge of our time. The link between human activities is irrefutable and a transition to renewable energy sources like wind and solar is our best hope in achieving this. We are encouraged by the recent adoption of these sources and expect continued market share capture from fossil fuel sources as innovation and decreasing costs further accelerate the transition. We believe investors can participate in the shift toward these sources, while potentially capitalizing on the growth of underlying disruptive technologies and the companies offering them.
RAYS – Providing Exposure to the Solar Value Chain
The Global X Solar ETF (RAYS) seeks to provide investors with efficient and targeted exposure to various solar sub-themes that we expect to shape future energy mixes as the world shifts to more sustainable practices. RAYS strives for pure exposure to solar by investing in companies that derive at least 50% from activities within these sub-themes, as defined by the underlying index provider: 35
- Solar Energy Materials: Producers of raw materials that are primarily used in photovoltaic solar cells or concentrating solar-thermal mirrors or lenses.
- Solar Energy Systems Components: Companies involved in the development/manufacturing of solar energy systems that harness energy from the photovoltaic effect or sunlight to generate electricity.
- Solar Power Production: Companies that generate and distribute electricity from light energy.
- Solar Technology: Companies that develop commercial and residential infrastructure, generators, and engines powered by solar energy, as well as residential and commercial scale batteries for electricity produced from solar power, and solar-powered charging systems for electric vehicles or other electric devices.
- Solar Power Installation, Integration Maintenance: Companies that provide engineering and/or advisory services for the installation, integration, maintenance, and/or continued utilization of solar power at the residential, commercial, and industrial levels.
RAYS: The Global X Solar ETF (RAYS) seeks to invest in companies positioned to benefit from the advancement of the global solar technology industry. This includes companies involved in solar power production; the integration of solar into energy systems; and the development/manufacturing of solar-powered generators, engines, batteries, and other technologies related to the utilization of solar as an energy source.
Click the fund name above to view the fund’s current holdings. Holdings subject to change. Current and future holdings subject to risk.
Authored by: Global X Research Team
Connecting Solar Panels Together
Connecting solar panels together is a simple and effective way of increasing your solar power capabilities. Going green is a great idea, and as the sun is our ultimate power source, it makes sense to utilize this energy to power our homes. As solar power becomes more accessible, more and more homeowners are buying photovoltaic solar panels.
However, these photovoltaic solar panels can be very costly so buying them over time helps to spread the cost. But the problem then becomes how do we connect these extra solar panels together to increase the voltage and power output of what’s already there.
The trick here when connecting solar panels together is to choose a connection method that is going to give you the most energy efficient configuration for your particular requirements.
Connecting solar panels together can seem like a daunting task when you first start to look at how it should be done, but connecting multiple solar panels together is not that hard with a little thought. Wiring solar panels together in either parallel or series combinations to make larger arrays is an often overlooked, yet completely essential part of any well designed solar power system.
There are three basic but very different ways of connecting solar panels together and each connection method is designed for a specific purpose. For example, to produce more output voltage or to produce more current.
Solar photovoltaic panels can be electrically connected together in series to increase the voltage output, or they can be connected together in parallel to increase the output amperage. Solar pv panels can also be wired together in both series and parallel combinations to increase both the output voltage and current to produce a higher wattage array.
Whether you are connecting two or more solar panels, as long as you understand the basic principles of how connecting multiple solar panels together increases power and how each of these wiring methods works, you can easily decide on how to wire your own panels together. After all connecting solar panels together correctly can greatly improve the efficiency of your solar system.
Connecting Solar Panels Together in Series
The first method we will look at for connecting solar panels together is what’s known as “Series Wiring“. The electrical connection of solar panels in series increases the total system ouput voltage. Series connected solar panels are generally used when you have a grid connected inverter or charge controller that requires 24 volts or more. To series wire the panels together you connect the positive terminal to the negative terminal of each panel until you are left with a single positive and negative connection.
Solar panels in series add up or sum the voltages produced by each individual panel, giving the total output voltage of the array as shown.
Solar Panels in Series of Same Characteristics
In this method ALL the solar panels are of the same type and power rating. The total voltage output becomes the sum of the voltage output of each panel. Using the same three 6 volt, 3.0 amp panels from above, we can see that when these pv panels are connected together in series, the array will produce an ouput voltage of 18 Volts (6 6 6) at 3.0 Amperes, giving 54 Watts (volts x amps) at full sun.
Now lets look at connecting solar panels in series with different nominal voltages but with identical current ratings.
Solar Panels in Series of Different Voltages
In this method all the solar panels are of different types and power rating but have a common current rating. When they are connected together in series, the array produces 21 volts at 3.0 amps, or 63 watts. Again the output amperage will remain the same as before at 3.0 amps but the voltage output jumps to 21 volts (5 7 9).
Finally, lets look at connecting solar panels in series with completely different nominal voltages and different current ratings.
Solar Panels in Series of Different Currents
In this method all the solar panels are of different types and power rating. The individual panel voltages will add together as before, but this time the amperage will be limited to the value of the lowest panel in the series string, in this case 1 Ampere. Then the array will produce 19 Volts (3 7 9) at 1.0 Ampere only, or only 19 watts out of a possible 69 watts available reducing the arrays efficiency.
We can see that the solar panel rated at 9 volts, 5 amps, will only use one fifth or 20% of its maximum current potential reducing its efficiency and wasting money on the purchase of this solar panel. Connecting solar panels in series with different current ratings should only be used provisionally, as the solar panel with the lowest rated current determines the current output of the whole array.
Connecting Solar Panels Together in Parallel
The next method we will look at of connecting solar panels together is what’s known as “Parallel Wiring“. Connecting solar panels together in parallel is used to boost the total system current and is the reverse of the series connection. For parallel connected solar panels you connect all the positive terminals together (positive to positive) and all of the negative terminals together (negative to negative) until you are left with a single positive and negative connection to attach to your regulator and batteries.
When you connect solar panels together in parallel, the total voltage output remains the same as it would for a single panel, but the output current becomes the sum of the output of each panel as shown.
Solar Panels in Parallel of Same Characteristics
In this method ALL the solar panels are of the same type and power rating. Using the same three 6 Volt, 3.0 Amp panels as above, the total output of the panels, when connected together in parallel, the output voltage still remains at the same value of 6 volts, but the total amperage has now increased to 9.0 Amperes (3 3 3), producing 54 watts at full sun.
But what if our newly acquired solar panels are non-identical, how will this affect the other panels. We have seen that the currents add together, so no real problem there, just as long as the panel voltages are the same and the output voltage remains constant. Lets look at connecting solar panels in parallel with different nominal voltages and different current ratings.
Solar Panels in Parallel with Different Voltages and Currents
Here the parallel currents add up as before but the voltage adjusts to the lowest value, in this case 3 volts or some voltage value very close to 3 volts. Solar panels must have the same output voltage to be useful in parallel. If one panel has a higher voltage it will supply the load current to the degree that its output voltage drops to that of the lower voltage panel.
We can see that the solar panel rated at 9 volts, 5 amps, will only operate at a maximum voltage of 3 volts as its operation is being influenced by the smaller panel, reducing its efficiency and wasting money on the purchase of this higher power solar panel. Connecting solar panels in parallel with different voltage ratings is not recommended as the solar panel with the lowest rated voltage determines the voltage output of the whole array.
Then when connecting solar panels together in parallel it is important that they ALL have the same nominal voltage value, but it is not necessary that they have the same ampere value.
Connecting Solar Panels Together Summary
Connecting solar panels together to form bigger arrays is not all that complicated. How many series or parallel strings of panels you make up per array depends on what amount of voltage and current you are aiming for. If you are designing a 12 volt battery charging system than parallel wiring is perfect. If you are looking at a higher voltage grid connected system, than you’re probably going to want to go with a series or series-parallel combination depending on the number of solar panels you have.
But for a simple reference in regards to how to connect solar panels together in either parallel or series wiring configurations, just remember that parallel wiring = more amperes, and series wiring = more voltage, and with the right type and combination of solar panels you can power just about any electrical device you may have in your home.
For more information about Connecting Solar Panels Together in either series or parallel combinations, or to obtain more information about the different types of solar panels available, or to explore the advantages and disadvantages of using solar power in your home, then Click Here to order your copy from Amazon today and learn more about designing, wiring and installing off-grid photovoltaic solar electric systems in your home.
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0 Комментарии и мнения владельцев already about “ Connecting Solar Panels Together ”
I have read on the web that there should be a diode (blocking reverse flow of current) inserted between PV panels arranged in parallel. I have two small 12v panels (50W 30W) and I want to chain them in parallel to get 80W @ 12v. Do I have to put a diode somewhere in the wiring between the panels and the battery? Or just between the two panels?
Hi I have 4.2 kw controller(ups) and 8 solar panel of 545 watt each. each panel 48 volt. each panel current is 10 amp at its peak Now. i have a question How can i arrange these panels to get max output? If i put 6 panel in series and 2 panel in parallel then connect these together. what is my output ? I require max output Kindly guide me
hello some advice please i have 4 x 235w panels voc 37v rated 29.5v to power 4 x 130 ah wet battery bank wired series and parallel via a 100amp mppt controller and 24v 6000w invertor would i be better off wiring the panels in parallel or series thanks for your help and advice
Please I have 2 Panels 270Watts each, connected to a charge controller that charges a 12Volts 200AH battery. I just bought another 2 Panels 300Watts each to be connected together with the existing system. I am thinking if I pair 270W panel with 300 W panel in series before connecting them all in parallel will reduce the loss?
We expect that there would be very little difference in the I-V characteristics between your 270W and 300W panels, as there is such a small difference in wattage, 270W compared to 300W. Thus the Vmp and Voc voltages would be very similar. But the Imp and Isc values would be more different. Then 2 x 270W in one series string, and 2 x 300W in a second series string, with both strings in parallel. That way the voltages would balance out but you would still get different branch currents relating to the wattages.
Currently, I have a 24v system with 24v panels connected in parallel. I want to step down to 12v system without changing the 24v panels, I just want to buy one 12v panel and connect in parallel. 1) What is the effect of 12v panel besides reducing the voltage output of other 24v panels to 12v? 2) Would the 24v panels retain their qualities in case I return to the 24v system after a few years?
1) It does not work like that. Your output would be around 18 volts and your 24 volt panels would be feeding current directly into the smaller 12 volt panel due to such a large mismatch. 2) Probably not, as they would deteriorate over time anyway, and would see your 12 volt panel as the load
Ok. Can I step the 24v panels down to 12v using my PMT 12v/24v Charge control? I want to scale down to 12v without throwing my active panels into the bin.
Hi If I got 2 x 200w Omega OSP201 Panels connected in series VOC – 22.2; SCC(A) – 8,6; VMP(v) – 18; Max VMP – 8,11 Connected to 2×180 amp/h batt in Paralel with 2000w Pure Sine inverter and 20 Amp Solar control charger. Is it the correct way? Thank you, I’m following
I have 24 x 230 W 37 volt 7.8 Amp panels. In order to fit these panels into my all-in-one EGR 120/240 6000 inverter I have to have a 500 volt max. I believe the only way to meet the 500VOC max requirement, I would need to wire 12 panels in Series and 12 panels in Parallel giving me 12 x 7.8 = 93.6 amps and 37 volts in Parallel 12 x 37 Volts = 444 Volts and 7.8 Amps in Series Can I combine the 2 Arrays?
12 panels in parallel with 12 panels in series, No. 12 panels in one series string equals 444 volts, and 2 series strings in parallel (12S2P) equals 15.6 (7.8 7.8) amperes.
If I connect two 18v panels in series creating 36v output, then connect this array in parallel with two other 36v panels, if one of the 18v series panels is in shade, how will it affect the total output.
The connection solar Panels was useful to me, so I am saying thank you, and hope to learn more from you
Hi I have a few 70 volt solar panels and they are very low amperage, I want to Connect to batteries however don’t as yet have an inverter, how are inverters rated and are there inverters that will take high voltages and give 12volt battery Charging Outputs,? I see many 12 volt and 24 volt inverters but cant seem to find one that accepts 70 plus volts input, these panels were sold with LED lights and i was told to connect 3 lights to one panel and they will act as day time down lights but there is no voltage on the light fittings and was told less than 3 lights will be too little and the panels out put would blow them up, so I decided not to operate this way as it sounds unsafe instead I want to use the panels to Charge batteries but the High voltage output is Confusing as other panels I used had 6-12 volt output not 70 volts
It seems you are confused. Solar Charge Controllers, also called Battery Charge Controllers take the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panel(s), and/or wind turbine generators and produce a standard output voltage of between 12 to 48 volts DC (depending on model) used to charge a single battery or a larger battery bank. The configuration and wattage of any connected pv panel, or array would depend on the DC input characteristics of the contorller. Inverters take the DC voltage and convert or invert (hence their name) it into AC mains voltage and power, either single-phase 240V or 3-phase for use in the home or to feed the incoming mains power. Thus you would have two different controllers, one to produce the required DC voltage, 12V, 24V, etc. from the panels and another to create the higher mains AC voltage for the home. Nowadays, there are all-in-one MPPT Solar Regulators or System Voltage Controllers which have both units within one controller. Again, the DC input and power rating of the regulator will decide how you configure your panels, or array.
Thanks for that one last question the panels are 67.9v at 1.07 amps and 72.5 watts how is the best way to wire them all in Parallel, or 3 in series 3 in series then both sets of 3 in Parallel? I am thinking all 6 in Parallel from my Understanding is there a calculation for the best size Battery or number of Batteries that this will Charge? Thank you for your assistance
If your panels are rated at 70 watts each, and you state you have 6. Then that gives a total of 6 x 70 = 420 watts. This 420 watts is ONLY available during “full sun” conditions, about 4 to 5 hours per day. Thus assuming 4 hours gives 4 x 420 = 1680 watt-hours per day. Since its a DC system, watts are equal to volt-amperes (VA) in this case. Thus you have 1680 VA per day max. Assuming a 12 volt system, that equates to 1680/12 = 140 amp-hours per day max. Assuming a 50% depth of charge per day, then you would need a 280 Amp-hour battery. That is, your battery discharges to 50% capacity each day, and your panels recharge it during the 4 hours of full sun. Clearly, system losses and efficiency are not considered here.
I have two 100ah 12v batteries connected in parallel. I have a 100 watt thunderbolt solar kit connected to both batteries. I plan to add another 100w solar panel kit. Should I connect each solar kit to both batteries or connect one kit to a single battery and the other kit to the other battery?
Solar kit implies panel and charge controller. Then it is not advisable to connect two or more charge controllers to the same battery terminals as they will compete against each other and the battery bank may not be charged or protected correctly. Instead connect all the pv panels to the input of one battery charge controller.
not connect in paralel,you just connect your batteris in series and connect the pannels in series in order to increase the current,your system will run perfectly
Incorrect information. Series connection increases voltage, not current. He has a 12 volt system, not a 24 volt system
Hi there,I have 2x 330w in parallel with 36v,20a output.Can I run this through a 24v, 20amp. 440 watt voltage inverter/dropper/converter??
Please bear with me, I man not a total newby, but I do still have a lot to learn about this… I am changing / adding to my RV solar system. It currently has a single panel that I think is 175 watt with a 30 amp PWM controller and 2 12-volt 100 AH RV batteries that were not properly maintained and need to be replaced. Controller and batteries will get changed out, as I change/add panels on the roof and upgrade the wiring to the controllers and battery bank. I want to build the system so I can add to it in equal increments as I discover just how much power I need and if needs change. (Unit not yet in my possession so I don’t know exactly how I will be consuming power.) My original plan was to build the system with three 200-watt panels and a 60 amp MPPT controller (or 2 panels and a 40 amp controller), keeping everything balanced and add to the system in these increments. I have plenty of room for controllers and batteries, with a fair amount of room on the roof and plan on using Tilt Brackets to maximize collector exposure This is where I fall down…. Panels in Series or Parallel? Parallel would give me 27 volts. Series would give me 81 volts. I would really like to stay with 12-volt system so I don’t have to change anything else in the RV, Can this be done with the higher voltage / lower current feeds from the panels? Will the controllers be able to take the higher voltage and adjust accordingly or should I go with the lower voltage and higher current? Also, I don’t yet know at what my Charger/Inverter is rated at so I may have to change that as well. At this point the only thing I have purchased is batteries that were removed from my previous RV’s system. These are FLA 6-volt GC2 batteries that were connected in series/parallel giving me 12 volts, 420 AH (allowing for a 50% draw-down), giving me 210 AH. I will eventually switch over to Li Batteries and add additional cells as the system increases I am considering 200 Watt panels, up to 2000 watts MAX. The manufacturers spec’s on these panels have a Voc of 27 volts, Short Circuit Current of 9.66 amps. In your opinion, would I be better to consider more panels with a lower wattage (100 watts) or continue with the 200 watt panels? This is a large RV and mostly Boondocking / Dry Camping expected for 1 night stays and up to 2 weeks or more. (I have a portable generator, but would prefer to use it only when necessary).
The size of chosen panels would depend on the available installation space as 2 x 100W panels would take up about 40% more area than one single 200W panel. The configuration of your 2kW array would depend on the DC input characteristics of your charge controller. Higher voltage and lower current would be the preferred option as lower current means smaller diameter cables. Your 60 amp MPPT controller may have a DC input voltage of 150VDC, then your panels Voc of 27 volts would mean 5 panels in one series string (5 x 27 = 135V) and two parallel branches (5S2P) giving a Isc of 19.32 amperes (2 x 9.66) for your 2kW (10 x 200W) array. Clearly, you would need to consult your charge controllers specifications first.
I have 12 – 250 Watt solar pannels. Voc 37.6 and Rated current 8.27 Amps I have a 80A MPPT solar charge controller wit a Max PV input 2000W (Max. PV Array OV). I Have 24V 3KVA, with input voltage 65-140VAC/95-140VAC. Wich would be the ideal way to set up the solar panels to produce the most for my battey bulk and inverter?
We assume you have bought the solar items you have bought for a reason because you have some knowledge or have been previously advised. If not or you have no idea what you are doing but want us to tell you. Clearly, a 250W panel is for 24 volt battery charging. Thus 2000/24 = 83 amperes as you have stated. Then you need a 48 volt system with 6 branches of two panels per string. This would give a maximum array Voc of 75.2 volts, and a maximum array current of 50 amperes.
I have two panel 545 watt and one panel 150 watt l have 2.8 kva inverter 24watt how I connect these panel serial or parallel.
Clearly with such a large mismatch between panels, you cannot use the 150W panel with the two 545W panels.
All is spoken and all is said ,but I just want to know we have six 150watts panels,a 60A charge controller and 4 200A batteries which right way would you recommend us to use in connecting the panels and the batteries /which installation style will give something that is better that we may be able to use a 240-300 volts inverter and 60 12volts bulbs
You have 6 x 150 watt panels. Then you have a total of 900 watts maximum at full sun, no matter how you connect them. 150W panels are for charging 12 volt batteries, thus their Vmp is usually about 18 volts. 3 x 18 = 54 volts plus 25% for Voc equals about 68 volts. If your 60A charge controller can handle a maximum DC input of 68 volts, then 3 panels in a series string, and 2 parallel branches (3S2P). If not, 2S3P. Your 12 volt light bulbs will require a 12 volt supply from the 12 volt batteries. Then your 4 batteries are connected in parallel.
If both solar panels (120w and 200w) have a charge controller fitted do I need to remove one of them to charge two 12v 105A batteries
Each panel can be used to charge a single battery. But as the characteristics of each panel is different, each battery will charge at a different rate.
or join the the wiring below the two controllers to the battery bank. in this way should one panel, controller or wiring fail, the other panel will carry the load
Hi I have 8 solar panel of 545 watt each. each panel 48 volt. each panel current is 10 amp at its peak Now. i have a question How can i arrange these panels to get max output? If i put 6 panel in series and 2 panel in parallel then connect these together. what is my output ? I require max output Kindly guide me
I have 3x 215 watt panels victron. using a 50amp victron controller i will be fusing a 50amp from controller to battery.can you tell me do i need to fuse each panel to controller or can i just use one fuse.which size fuse.plus what would you recommend series or parallel.many thanks.
215 watt panels are generally for 24v systems, thus have an output voltage of around 36 volts. 215w/36v equals about 6 Amperes. 3 in series equals about 108 volts (check panel specs for max Voc). If you controller can handle upto 120VDC input go series at 6 amps. If not 3 in parallel at 36 volts, 18 amps at full sun. For series, obviously one fuse. For parallel, one fuse per branch (panel) if you want, or just one for the whole set.
If I have two solar pannes of same voltage(18v×2) but different amperes(80w,120w) and I use two different charge controller on one battery of 150AH.will my connection add up as expected?
LabelTac ® Pro X Solar Panel System Bundle
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The requirements for labeling solar panels are different than the requirements for other power systems. This makes it difficult to find certain labels, and often requires that the ones for your facility are custom-made. Luckily, you’ll be able to create all the custom labels you need with this Solar Panel System Bundle. It includes a LabelTac® Pro X industrial label printer, varied label supply, label creation software, and standard print ribbon. We also added supply that has OSHA-compliant “Warning” and “Danger” headers. With this bundle, you can create long-lasting signs and labels up to 4” tall and 40” long that are resistant to water, chemicals, UV rays, and other wear and tear, making them perfect to apply to solar panel equipment.
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Solar Panels by Sunrun
Learn about our best-in-class solar products and services.
Experience Peace of Mind for Decades to Come with Sunrun Rooftop Solar Panels
When you team up with a solar company like Sunrun, you can create your own affordable, clean energy and gain independence from your utility company. A Sunrun solar installation can help power your home when the sun is out while you boost control over your energy usage and reduce your dependence on fossil fuels.
We offer several residential solar plans to help you start your solar journey. Find out which is the ideal fit for your budget and unique energy needs.
We offer some of the best solar rooftop panel systems on the market, and you can bring them home through a lease payment plan, flexible solar financing, or by paying outright. Our made-to-fit solar solutions, paired with exceptional service and our industry-leading solar guarantee, have positioned us as the leading residential solar and energy storage company in the U.S. 1
Solar panels are just one part of the solution to experience energy freedom and security. To ensure you get the most out of your home energy system, consider adding a solar battery back-up service like Sunrun’s Brightbox. Hundreds of millions of people were affected by blackouts from 2008 to 2017. 2 With Brightbox, you can keep your lights on and your food fresh during outages with a Smart, affordable, and reliable back-up power system.
Benefits of Adding Sunrun’s Battery Storage Service to Your Solar Panels
Brightbox doesn’t need dangerous, expensive, and toxic fossil fuels to work. 3 When the sun is out, it can store clean and affordable back-up power for later use.
Brightbox paired with a Tesla Powerwall can help you back up your entire home, or you can back up just the rooms you need with an LG Chem solar battery.
Tesla Powerwall and LG Chem solar batteries can last anywhere from 10 to 15 years, and they typically come with a 10-year manufacturer warranty for your peace of mind.
Solar with incentives
Our Automated Site Modeling tool is a revolutionary technology that allows us to design a custom Sunrun home solar energy system based on your roof’s unique dimensions and layout.
Sunrun’s Automated Site Modeling tool will use your roof’s individual profile, including shading, pitch, sun exposure, seasonality, and roof obstacles. This will ensure that the designed Sunrun solar panel system matches your home’s structure and unique energy needs. A customized system can let you know your potential control over your future electricity bills
Sunrun’s Product Selector is an innovative and simple tool. It lets you know in minutes which solar plan, with or without a home battery, can give you and your family more benefits in the long run, depending on where you live.
Sunrun’s Product Selector will use information about your roof’s type and pitch, your household size, and other important aspects, like if you have a home office or if you need back-up power, to recommend the best Sunrun home solar plan for you. This can help secure the peace of mind you deserve during rising energy costs and power outages while reducing your carbon footprint.
Does my state offer incentives to go solar?
See the states where Sunrun is currently available and the solar incentives that might be offered where you live. Some of the most common solar incentives include tax credits, property tax exemptions, and rebates. No matter what state you live in, you may be eligible for the Federal Solar Tax Credit (ITC) if you decide to purchase a home solar energy system.
You can get a Sunrun monthly plan to lease your solar panels or prepay for your renewable energy through a solar power purchase agreement or PPA plan. As a result, any incentive savings you would receive through tax credits and rebates with a system purchase can be passed to you in the form of a lower solar bill.
How do solar panels work?
You can’t talk about solar panels without talking about silicon. Silicon is a non-metallic element and the second-most abundant material on earth. 4 It can also convert sunlight into electricity, and it’s a key component in a solar system (also known as a photovoltaic, or PV system). 5
Solar panels, solar cells, or PV cells, are made by slicing crystalline silicon (also known as wafers) that are millimeters thin. These wafers are sandwiched between protective glass, insulation, and a protective back sheet, which make a solar panel. The back sheet helps to regulate the temperature and humidity to optimize the solar panel’s efficiency. 6 Multiple solar panels connected together create a solar array, and ultimately, a solar system.
Then there’s the physics of how solar cells work: Electricity is made when electrons move between atoms. The top and bottom of a silicon wafer in the solar cell are treated with small amounts of atoms of extra materials—such as boron, gallium, or phosphorus—so that the top layer has more electrons and the bottom layer has less. When the sun activates the electrons in these oppositely charged layers, the electrons move through a circuit attached to the panels. This flow of electrons through the circuit is what generates the electrical current that ultimately powers a home. 7
What are the different types of solar panels?
Monocrystalline solar panels:
Monocrystalline solar panels have the highest efficiency and power capacity out of all other types of solar panels. Another reason why people choose them is because of how they look. The solar cells within monocrystalline panels are square-shaped and have a single, flat black color, making them the most popular type of solar panels among homeowners. 8 Sunrun uses monocrystalline PV modules in all its home solar systems.
Polycrystalline solar panels:
The manufacturing process of polycrystalline solar panels is less costly than monocrystalline panels, but it also makes them less efficient. Usually, polycrystalline solar panels don’t have the corners cut off of them, so you won’t see the large white spaces on the front of the panel that you see on monocrystalline panels. 8
Thin-film solar panels:
Thin-film solar panels are less costly and easier to install than their counterparts. Still, they aren’t the best option for a home solar installation due to their efficiency, lightweight material, and durability. 8
How long do solar panels really last?
When you consider investing in a solar installation, you might wonder how long home solar panels last. Studies show that solar panels can last anywhere from 20 to 30 years, or sometimes longer. 9 Still, this doesn’t mean the panels on your roof will stop producing electricity after a couple of decades. It just means their energy production will decrease by what solar panel manufacturers consider optimal to meet the average household’s energy needs.
Do home solar systems have a warranty?
All of our solar equipment is backed by factory warranties. On top of that, our monthly solar lease plan and prepaid solar plan (also known as a solar PPA) come with 24/7 proactive monitoring and free maintenance on us. If we notice that your rooftop panels or solar battery aren’t working at their full capacity, we’ll send an expert over to fix it without you lifting a finger. This benefit sets Sunrun apart from the other solar installers in the country.
How does Automated Site Modeling work?
After you enter a few details about your home, our Automated Site Modeling tool will analyze hundreds of thousands of variables in home solar system designs to build a high-resolution image of the ideal system for your roof. These factors include your home’s pitch, seasonality, sun exposure, shading, and roof obstacles. This helps Sunrun guarantee you receive maximum benefits from your new home solar system.
How does Sunrun’s Product Selector work?
After you answer a few simple questions about your home’s details, lifestyle, and electricity usage, Sunrun’s Product Selector will let you know if a monthly lease plan, prepaying for your solar energy, financing a system, or purchasing outright—along with a back-up power service—is the most cost-effective solution for your unique needs.
Are Automated Site Modeling and Sunrun’s Product Selector really free?
Yes. At Sunrun, we’re committed to providing you with the best technology, services, and tools, like our Automated Site Modeling tool and Product Selector, to make your switch to solar as affordable and straightforward as possible. This can help you worry less about controlling your electric bills and protecting your home during outages while reducing your carbon emissions for decades.
Do solar panels get hot?
Rooftop solar panels can get hot, particularly during scorching summer days. If the panels do get hot or overheat, they can produce less energy as the temperature rises above their optimal energy production range.
In general, residential solar panels are designed to reach their peak efficiency level at 77 °F (25 °C), but their efficiency will decrease by 0.5% for every degree above this temperature. The actual percentage of lower production varies by the solar panel’s manufacturer and model. Ultimately, you want to aim for an exterior temperature range of 59 to 95 °F (15 to 35 °C). Yet, it’s unrealistic for rooftop solar panels to stay within this range all year, especially in places where temperatures can go past 100 °F (37.8 °C). Fortunately, most solar panels can withstand heat up to 149 °F (65 °C). 10
Nonetheless, solar panel overheating can be prevented. Many solar panel manufacturers cover the panels in a material that generally conducts and vents heat away from the glass. In addition, solar panels are usually mounted a few inches above the roof, which allows airflow space to help move heat away from the panels.
Despite the reduction in efficiency from extreme heat, solar energy generation doesn’t stop. The lower electricity production due to scorching weather balances out with the longer days of sunlight throughout the seasons. Although solar panels work best on cold, sunny days, they produce solar power year-round in nearly every location and climate.
Do solar panels work in cold weather?
Solar panels create energy from sunlight—not the sun’s heat. In fact, solar panels produce electricity more efficiently in cooler conditions. Even in the most frigid weather, solar panels can turn sunlight into electricity.
How does this work? Colder temperatures enhance solar energy production efficiency, which increases the amount of electricity produced. Electrons are at rest in cooler climates. When the electrons in solar panels are activated by increasing sunlight, a voltage difference is attained that creates an electric current.
Warmer summer temperatures raise the overall energy levels of electrons in solar panels. This increased energy level decreases the energy differential that can be gained, producing less energy. A higher energy state interferes with solar panel electricity production since some energy transfers into heat instead of electricity. Your home doesn’t need to be in a warm-weather state like Arizona, California, Nevada, or Texas to generate year-round reliable solar power.
Do solar panels work at night?
While solar panels need sunlight to create electricity, there are two ways you can benefit from solar power during the nighttime: enroll in a net energy metering (NEM) program (if it’s offered where you live), or add a home battery storage service, like Sunrun’s Brightbox.
Net energy metering (NEM): Lower-cost grid energy at night
If NEM is offered in your state and by your utility, you may be eligible to earn credits on your bill for the excess solar energy you produce and send to your utility company. 11 At night, you could use those credits toward drawing electricity from the grid at a lower cost. Net metering may help you save money on your future electricity bills. Visit your utility company’s website for more information.
Solar battery storage: Reliable, affordable back-up energy, day and night
A battery storage service like Brightbox can let you store the excess solar power you produce for later use. This stored solar energy can help keep your devices and appliances running at night, during outages, cloudy days, and rainy afternoons.
Brightbox offers two lithium-ion solar battery storage options: Tesla Powerwall and LG Chem. Tesla Powerwall can help yo back up your entire home while LG Chem can help you back up to four circuits inside your home. There are also differences in software and app functionality.
Request a free, personalized quote to connect with a Sunrun Solar Advisor and determine which Sunrun back-up solution would work best for your home.
How does Brightbox work?
Brightbox allows you to store the excess energy your solar energy system produces during the day to use it in the evening, at night, or when the electric grid fails due to physical damage or an extreme weather event or.
Do I need solar panels to use Brightbox?
Aside from very rare exceptions, Sunrun’s Brightbox service includes rooftop solar panels. Brightbox can store 100% clean, renewable, home-grown solar power directly from the rooftop panels when the sun is out, so you can use it when you need it most.
Can I add Brightbox to my current home solar system?
At this time, Brightbox with a Tesla Powerwall or LG Chem solar battery is only available in the installation of a new Sunrun home solar system due to tech compatibility issues. We can’t install rooftop solar panels or a home battery if you already have an existing solar installation or if Brigtbox’s battery storage service isn’t available in your area.
What happens during a solar installation?
Once you’re approved for a solar installation, your property will undergo a site assessment, and an expert solar technician will schedule a visit with you to confirm your system design.
After that, our Solar Design Experts will make any necessary adjustments to your design and get your final approval. Once it’s approved, we’ll submit your design to the city for permitting, which can take up to eight weeks. From there, either Sunrun or one of our local certified partners will start your solar installation. We only partner with the top-rated solar installers, so you can rest easy knowing you’ll have the highest quality solar installation available.
When your installation is finished, the city or county will perform a final inspection of your system. Once it’s approved, it’ll be connected to the grid, and we’ll submit your documents to the utility company. After your utility company grants Permission to Operate (PTO), you’ll be all set to start powering your home with the sun.
What happens if I move?
We have an entire team of professionals standing by to help you sell your solar home and transfer your contract, if applicable, to the new owners. Sunrun makes it easy to pass your solar lease or power purchase agreement (PPA) to the new owners. Our Service Transfer Specialists handle everything from educating realtors and potential buyers to working with escrow officers, title agents, home inspectors, as well as anyone else who might need to know about your system and solar lease or PPA agreement.