Haitai Solar M10 Haitai Series Photovoltaic Modules Instruction Manual
This manual contains information on the installation, maintenance, and safe operation of PV modules produced by the Tangshan Haitian New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. Only applicable to M2, M6, M10 size of the corresponding series of battery modules. Read and try to understand this note before installation. Professional installers are required to follow the instructions in the manual when installing the modules. If there is any problem please contact our sales department for help. Before installing solar PV system, the installers need to familiarize with the requirements of mechanical and electrical aspects. Please keep this manual for later use.
The installation, operation and use of Haiti New Energy series modules are beyond Haitian’s control. Thereby, Haiti New Energy does not undertake any loss, damage, injury and consequent costs caused by improper installation, operation, use and maintenance. Haiti New Energy does not undertake any responsibilities for the violation of patent, third-party rights and other uses of PV products. Any modification towards any patent or patent right is not allowable if there is no authorization. This manual is made based on Haiti New Energy’s technology and reliable experience, but the information and recommendations including product specifications do not constitute any warranty. Haitian New Energy keeps the rights of changing manuals, product information, technical specifications and product data without prior notice.
The installation of solar photovoltaic systems requires professional skills and knowledge, thus the installation must be carried out by professionals. In the process of installation, the installers assumes the risk of injuries, including but not limited to the risk of electric shock. When exposed to direct sunlight, a single module may produce more than 30V DC voltage. The exposure with 30V or higher DC voltage has potential risks. The electric arcs may occur when disconnecting or linking the photovoltaic modules exposed to the sunlight. This arc may cause burns, a fire or other problems. Do not disconnect the linking between the modules or between the modules and inverters in case of the load. The photovoltaic modules could convert the power energy into DC power. The modules could be applied for the ground, roofs, vehicles or boat and other outdoor environment. It is system designer and installers’ responsibility to reasonably design the support structure. Do not disassemble the modules or remove other attached brands or parts. Do not spray or glue on the upper and lower surfaces of the modules. Do not use the mirror or other magnifying glass equipment to concentrate the sunlight artificially to the modules. It needs to comply with all the local, regional and national laws and obtain a construction permit when necessary in the process of installing the system. It needs to keep the children away from the system when transporting and installing mechanical and electrical components. Do not wear metal rings, watch straps, ear, nose, lip rings or other metal parts when installing or inspecting the photovoltaic system.
The qualified insulating tools are the only choice for the electrical installation work.
Comply with the safety requirements of all other modules used in the system, including wiring lines and cables, connection devices, charging controllers, inverters, batteries and rechargeable batteries. Use the equipment suitable for solar power system, connection device, wiring lines and support frame only. In a particular photovoltaic system, use a type of module as much as possible and use the same type of the module in the same PV array only. Each input voltage of the same tracking system of each inverter must be equal and the same type of modules must be used. Under normal outdoor conditions, the current and voltage generated by the module are different from those listed in the parameter table. The parameter table is measured under the standard test conditions (1000w/m2 irradiance, AM 1.5 spectrum, 25°c temperature), so when determining other modules’ rated voltage, conductor capacity, fuse capacity, controller capacity and other parameters correlated to module output power, it should refer to the value of short-circuit current and open circuit voltage marked on the module and design and install the module according to the value of 125%. The component is applicable to the ambient temperature (-40 ° C to 85 ° C). The recommended operating temperature is (-20 ° C to 50 ° C).
Unpacking and Storage
When receiving the goods, you should check whether the goods delivered are indeed ordered goods: the outside of each box are marked with the product name, packaging box number, module barcode. The packaging carton should be stored in a clean, dry area, away from direct sunlight and moisture. At the installation site, pay attention to keep clean and dry for the components, especially the electrical connections. If the connector cable is wet, the connections may be corroded, and the components that be corroded at any connections should not be used. If the tray is temporarily stored outside, please put a protective cover to prevent it from being directly affected by the weather. Two staff members are required to unpack the packaging carton. Be sure to use both hands when removing the modules. Do not carry the modules through the wires and junction boxes. If the modules needed to be temporarily stored outside, please protect the edge of the module well. It is forbidden to stand or walk on modules in any case. It is forbidden to drop or stack items on the modules.
The modules can be installed in the following environment for more than 25 years
|Ambient temperature：||-40℃to 85℃|
|Operating Temperature：||-40℃to 85℃|
|Storage Temperature：||-20℃to 85℃|
Note： The installation method is very important for the mechanical load. Failure to follow the installation of this manual will result in different snow pressure and wind pressure load capacity. The system builder needs to ensure that the installation is in accordance with local laws and regulations.
Site Selection In north latitude area it is best to face south for the module, while in south latitude area, it is best to face north. It is best that the front of the module is perpendicular to the direction of the midday sun light. Fix bracket installation, the module is recommended to be installed at an optimum angle of inclination for maximum capture of sunlight. According to the right hand helical law, basically the same latitude as the installation site, facing the equator. The design must be based on local conditions and choose the best inclination. Track bracket installation, installation methods are also two kinds of block and bolt installation, specific installation methods refer to the installation instructions, at this time the module does not have a fixed installation inclination, nor will it face the equator, but the angle of tracking the sun from east to west. When installing solar modules on the roof, be sure to maintain a safe working area between the edge of the roof and the solar arrays. There must be a certain safety distance between arrays of large power stations in order to facilitate the cleaning, inspection, and maintenance of the modules inside the array. The components shall be installed in a position with full sunlight and shall not be covered from 9:00 to 15:00 on the winter solstice. The modules can not be used in the vicinity of the equipment or place where the flammable gas is generated or stored. The modules can not be installed in the environmental area where module defects are caused by various chemical reactions, such as acid rain, alkaline gas, salt mist, etc. The modules can not be installed in the environmental area that exceeds the maximum system voltage of the modules, such as high-voltage power lines. The module’s position should be maintained at a safe distance from the high-voltage power while the safe distance is determined by the high voltage level. If the modules are to be installed on the floor of a dwelling, local regulations such as fences should be complied with (the fences should be kept at a certain distance from the array to avoid shading impact of the fence on the array). Do not install the PV modules in places that may be immersed in water or continuously exposed to sprinklers or fountains.
Mounting Bracket Options When installing the modules on the bracket, the pillar and module installation structure should be chosen those can withstand the local expected earthquake level. The bracket structure must be made of a durable, anti-corrosion, anti-ultraviolet materials.
Module Installation When carrying the modules, two hands are required to grasp the modules and keep a level of stability. It is forbidden to shake severely, carry the module by one person, drag the module, pull the connecting lines of junction box and handle two and more modules. Place the modules on a flat ground, place the cardboard in the bottom and the glass surface is forbidden to directly touch the ground. When the module is placed on the ground, it is forbidden to stack debris, step on, sit down and have other actions that may cause deformation for the module. Do not step on the module during installation. Do not drag the module on the bracket. When the modules is installed on buildings or roofs, it needs to ensure that they are securely fastened and will not be damaged by strong wind or snow. Ensure that the back of the modules good ventilation for cooling the modules. When installing the modules on the roofs, make sure the roof structure is suitable. In addition, the roofs must be properly sealed to prevent leakage. The gap between the module frame and the wall or roof should be at least 115mm. If there are other installation methods, it may affect the assessment of fire rating. The spacing between two modules should be at least 10mm. The installation can not block the module’ drain hole.
Installation Method All installation methods described here are for reference only, and our company is not responsible for providing relevant installation parts. The design, installation, mechanical load and safety of module system must be completed by professional system installers or experienced personnel.
Fixture installation Cautions Please select an appropriate fixture for installation according to the aluminum alloy frame of the component. Module with frame fixtures meet the following requirements. thickness：≥ 3 mm Length :≥40 mm Material: Aluminum alloy Bolts: M8 Tightening torque: 18-24 N.m The fixture can not deform the module; the installation guide rail and fixture should avoid blocking the cells; the contact surface between the fixture and the frame must be smooth to prevent the frame damage from damaging the modules; the drainage hole should not be blocked by the fixture. Installation holes Cautions Use the mounting hole on the back of the module to fix the module on the bracket. You are advised to use mounting holes 1 and 2 to install bolts, nuts, and washers Material: Stainless steel Dimensions and lengths: M8 For 30mm height frame components, fastening L≤20mm is recommended Tightening torque: 14-20 N.m Using mounting holes 3 Bolts, nuts, and washers must meet the following requirements Material: Stainless steel Dimensions and lengths: M6 For 30mm height frame components, fastening L≤20mm is recommended Tightening torque: 8-12 N.m Installation Point Location Description The normal level load design is suitable for most environments: the maximum load on the back of the module is 2400 pa( equivalent to wind pressure) and the maximum load on the front is 2400 pa( equivalent to wind pressure). The higher load design is suitable for harsh environmental conditions (such as storm, heavy snow, etc.): the maximum load on the back of the module is 2400 pa( equivalent to wind pressure), and the maximum load on the front is 5400 pa( equivalent to wind pressure and snow pressure). Different load bearing can be obtained by selecting different fixture quantity, size and installation range. Fixture Installation Position The load strength of module with frame is shown in the table below (L is the length of the module)
|Drawing||Type||Number of fixtures||Fixture Length||Clamping A distance||Positive load||Negative load|
Installation Position If you use mounting holes to install components, mounting rails cross the long frame, select either mounting holes 1 or 2 based on the applicable version, or both.
|Applicable version||Installation Method||Positive load||Negative load|
Note: M2, M6, and M10 refer to the series modules of batteries of corresponding sizes. You can also select Installation 3 to fix the tracking system The load strength to be sustained is as follows:
|Applicable version||Installation Method||Positive load||Negative load|
- All solar pv module frames and mounting brackets must be aligned in accordance with the corresponding National Electrical Code or local electrical code regulations.
- You are advised to use a 4-14mm2 copper conductor (AWG 6-12) as the grounding conductor. The ground hole of the component is marked with “ ”.The ground wire must also be connected to the ground through a suitable ground electrode. All conductive connections must be securely connected.
- the diameter of the ground hole is 4.2mm on the aluminum alloy frame at the rear of the photovoltaic module. Connect the ground cable and related accessories to the aluminum alloy frame of the solar photovoltaic module and connect the ground cable to the ground. It is recommended to use M4 x 12mm ground bolt with M4 nut, star washer and flat washer. This ensures that the component is securely grounded. You can learn about the number, size and position of the grounding holes in detail on the Product drawings of Haiti. The torsional torque for grounding fixation is 4-8N ·m.
- In addition to using the ground hole for grounding, you can also use the following methods for grounding
- Use unused mounting holes for grounding
- Other special grounding devices No matter which grounding method is adopted, all grounding electrical contacts with the aluminum alloy frame of the PHOTOVOLTAIC module need to penetrate the anodized coating of the aluminum frame. When grounding a third-party grounding device, such as a dedicated grounding device, ensure that the device is reliable and professionally certified. When installing the device, comply with the manufacturer’s regulations.
Test. Debugging and Troubleshooting The serial modules are connected to the test before the system. Use digital multimeter (recommended Fluke 170 series or digital multimeter which DC range can reach 1500V) to check open-circuit voltage of the series modules. The measurement value should be equal to the sum of the open-circuit voltage of a single module and you will find the rated voltage in the technical specification of the type module you are using. Low voltage troubleshooting. Identify the normal low voltage and fault low voltage. The normal low voltage mentioned here refers to the decrease of the open circuit voltage of the module caused by the temperature increase of the solar cell or the decrease of the irradiance. Fault Low voltage is usually caused by improper terminal connection or bypass diode damage.
Blocking Diode and Bypass Diode Troubleshooting Blocking diodes could prevent current from flowing from the battery to the module when the module is not generating current. If you do not use the charge controller, it is recommended to use blocking diodes. About charge controller, please consult a professional dealer. In the system, hot spot effect occurs when part of the module is blocked and other parts are exposed to the sunshine and thereby lead to overheat of the battery and damage the module. Using bypass diodes in the module protects the module from being affected by this excessive reverse current. All modules those rated power are more than 55 watts have a bypass diode integrated in the junction box.
On-grid Electrical System Try to use the same components in a photovoltaic power generation system, the number of modules in series （N）≤Vuma）/[Vic(attest)].V (Max) is the maximum system voltage of the component, and Vac(attest) is the open-circuit voltage under the nominal state of the component. Several modules in series, and then form a PV array in parallel, which is particularly suitable for high voltage situations. If the modules are connected in series, the total voltage is equal to the sum of the voltages of the individual modules. In the case of using high current, you can put several PV modules in parallel, the total current is equal to the sum of the current of each module. The module can provide prefabricated connectors for system’s electrical connections. As for cable size, type and temperature and other parameters’ choice, please refer to the relevant rules. The cable cross-section surface and connector’s size must meet the maximum system short-circuit current, otherwise the cables and connectors will overheat because of excessive current and has the danger of burning! When installing, the junction box’s one end to be upward to avoid being rained. Protect yourself from electric shock when debugging or repairing the solar system. Wear protective gloves and insulated shoes and other protective equipment. Use special electrician tools for repairs.
To ensure the best performance of the solar panels, Haiti New Energy provide the following maintenance measures. The solar panel should be cleaned in the morning or evening when the power is low or no power is processing. Cleaning the glass surface when necessary through clean water and soft objects. The neutral detergent should be used for cleaning while the acidic or alkaline or abrasive detergent is forbidden. For large-scale systems, when considering whether all of the dust and deposits on the solar cell array should be cleaned or not, factors such as cleaning costs, increased energy output after cleaning, and the time it takes to get dirty again after cleaning need to be taken into consideration. If you are not sure whether the array or its sections need to be cleaned or not, you should firstly select the heavily polluted array string and then measure and record the inverter’s input current from that string.
- Clean all the modules within a string.
- Measure the input current of the inverter again and calculate improvement percentage after the cleaning.
- If the improvement degree is less than 5%, it is usually not worthy to pay the cost for cleaning.
In case of rainy weather, do not deliver the electricity if the inverter or other electrical equipment is power off. It is better to check and ensure that there is no problem in the lines before sending the electricity. When cleaning, the solar panel can not be washed with a high-pressure water gun for avoiding line leakage caused by excessive pressure in the connection place of the solar panel. Conduct a mechanical and electrical inspection for every six months and ensure that the surface is clean and the connection is reliable. If any other abnormal situation occurs, please consult factory or experienced engineer. Observe the maintenance instructions for all parts used in the system, such as bracket, charge controller, inverter, solar cell, etc.
Documents / Resources
|Haitai Solar M10 Haitai Series Photovoltaic Modules [pdf] Instruction ManualM2, M6, M10, M10 Haitai Series Photovoltaic Modules, M10, Haitai Series Photovoltaic Modules, Photovoltaic Modules, Modules|
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|[pdf] Warranty 182 535 555DMH5 72英文 indd Zonergy Taihe HTM535~555DMH5 72 태양광전지모듈사양서 ENF 모듈 디렉토리 119348057262f1baf017a7c cdn enfsolar z pp 2v9aikksw51 ||| 182 HTM535-555DMH5-72 Bifacial high efficiency mono PV module 21.48 Module Efficiency 21.48 PRODU. 40 C- 85 C Maximum System Voltage 1000/1500V STC Standard Testing Conditions : lrradiance 1000W/ m2, Cell Temperature 25. AM1.5 555 49.98 13.88 41.43 13.40 21.48 Electrical Data NMOT Maximum. lang:en score:27 filesize: 718.49 K page_count: 2 document date: 2022-05-10|
|[pdf] Warranty 210 585 610DMH8 60英 indd HT Solar Taihe HTM585~610DMH8 60 ورقة بيانات اللوحة الشمسية دليل لوحة ENF 34691242462f1bb908015c cdn enfsolar z pp vi70t1wtd ||| HTM585-610DMH8-60 Bifacial high efficiency mono PV module 21.55 Module Efficiency 21.55 PRODUCT F. 40 C- 85 C Maximum System Voltage 1000/1500V STC Standard Testing Conditions : lrradiance 1000W/ m2, Cell Temperature 25. AM1.5 605 41.69 18.58 34.59 17.50 21.38 610 41.89 18.64 34.79 17.54 21.5. lang:en score:27 filesize: 692.07 K page_count: 2 document date: 2022-05-10|
|[pdf] Warranty 166 440 460DMH3 72英 indd HT Solar Taihe HTM440~460DMH3 72 ورقة بيانات اللوحة الشمسية دليل لوحة ENF 100754205262f1ba35f1c59 cdn enfsolar z pp hd77lup3g ||| 166 HTM440-460DMH3-72 Bifacial high efficiency mono PV module 21.16 Module Efficiency 21.16 PRODU. 40 C- 85 C Maximum System Voltage 1000/1500V STC Standard Testing Conditions : lrradiance 1000W/ m2, Cell Temperature 25. AM1.5 460 49.88 11.66 41.34 11.13 21.16 Electrical Data NMOT Maximum. lang:en score:27 filesize: 708.95 K page_count: 2 document date: 2022-05-10|
|[pdf] Datasheet Warranty 166 360 380DMH3 60英文 indd HT Solar Taihe HTM360~380DMH3 60 Panel Datasheet ENF Directory cdn enfsolar z pp 3jh6w23m5eg ||| ||| 166 HTM360-380DMH3-60 Bifacial high efficiency mono PV module 20.86 Module Efficiency 20.86 PRODUCT FEATURES High Efficiency Power can be generated on both sides to support additio166 HTM360-380DMH3-60 Bifacial high efficiency mono PV module 20.86 Module Efficiency 20.86 PRODU. 40 C- 85 C Maximum System Voltage 1000/1500V STC Standard Testing Conditions : lrradiance 1000W/ m2, Cell Temperature 25. AM1.5 380 41.40 11.60 34.32 11.08 20.86 Electrical Data NMOT Maximum. lang:en score:27 filesize: 706.01 K page_count: 2 document date: 2022-05-10|
|[pdf] Dimension Guide Warranty 未标题 2 HTM435~455MH3 72 Haitai Solar 450W HalfCell Mono Panel solarpanelenergy co za docs ||| Half-Cell SERIES HTM435-455MH3-72 Half-Cell Monocrystalline Silicon PV Modules HIGH OUTPUT POWER Ou. Backsheet Frame Material Anodized aluminum alloy Junction Box Cable Protection class IP68 4.0 m m2 positive pole: 300 mm negative pole: 400 mm wire length can be customized Connector MC4 compati. lang:en score:23 filesize: 275.7 K page_count: 2 document date: 2021-02-25|
tags: Haitai Series Photovoltaic Modules, Haitai Solar, M10, M10 Haitai Series Photovoltaic Modules, M2, M6, Modules, Photovoltaic Modules,
Reviews and information on the best Solar panels, inverters and batteries from SMA, Fronius, SunPower, SolaX, Q Cells, Trina, Jinko, Selectronic, Tesla Powerwall, ABB. Plus hybrid inverters, battery sizing, Lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries, off-grid and on-grid power systems.
June 18, 2023 Jason Svarc
In the solar world, panel efficiency has traditionally been the factor most manufacturers strived to lead. However, a new battle emerged to develop the world’s most powerful solar panel, with many of the industry’s biggest players announcing larger format next-generation panels with power ratings well above 600W.
The race for the most powerful panel began in 2020 when Trina Solar revealed the first panel rated at 600W. Not long after, at the SNEC PV Power Expo in China, JinkoSolar unveiled a 610W version of the Tiger Pro panel. Around the same time, Trina Solar announced that a more powerful 660W panel was in development. Amazingly, close to 20 manufacturers at SNEC 2020 showcased panels rated over 600W, with the most powerful being the Jumbo 800W module from JA solar. However, this panel was enormous at 2.2m high and 1.75m wide and will most likely not become commercially available.
Despite the publicity around the many high-powered panels, many PV cell technologies enabling these higher power ratings are universal. Traditional commercial and residential panels have also increased in size and power, with 400W to 500W panels now standard. The considerable increase in power is primarily due to increases in efficiency thanks to many innovations, which we describe later in the article.
Designed for utility-scale systems
The main driver for developing larger, more powerful solar panels stems from the desire to decrease the cost of utility-scale solar farms and ultimately reduce electricity prices. Since larger panels require an equivalent amount of connections and labour compared to smaller panels, the installation cost per kW is reduced, resulting in lower overall cost and decreased LCOE. As explained below, the new high-powered panels are much larger than the ones used on residential rooftops. Those wishing to use ten 700W panels on their home rooftop to get an easy 7kW will be a little disappointed. At this stage, most high-powered panels will only be available for commercial and utility-scale systems, plus the extra-large size is not well suited and challenging to handle on most residential rooftops.
The solar industry has been slowly shifting towards larger, higher-wattage panels. The front runners in the race were traditionally Trina Solar, Jinko Solar, Canadian Solar, Risen Energy and JA Solar as these well-known companies were the first to launch ultra-power panels with ratings above 600W over the last two years. However, more recently, Jolywood, Huasun and the lesser-known company Akcome have moved forward with panels rated above 700W utilising more efficient N-type TOPCon or heterojunction (HJT) cell technology.
Interestingly, premium module manufacturers SunPower (now Maxeon) and REC are not racing to develop larger format high-power panels. Instead, they are focusing on supplying their traditional residential and commercial customer base with high-efficiency panels. That being said, Sunpower has revealed a larger 540W panel in the next-generation ‘Performance 5’ series.
Most Powerful Solar Panels
List of the most powerful panels currently in production or soon to be released with a maximum panel size of 2.4m high x 1.35m wide. Availability and release dates may vary for different regions.
|Akcome||iPower 7||730 W||210mm||N-Type HJT Bifacial||23.5 %||Q3 2023|
|Huasun||Himalaya G12||715 W||210mm||N-Type HJT Bifacial||23.0 %||Q1 2023|
|Risen Energy||Titan||710 W||210mm||N-Type Bifacial||22.5%||Q1 2023|
|Jolywood||JW-HD132N||700 W||210mm||N-Type TOPCon||22.5 %||Q2 2022|
|Trina Solar||Vertex N||690 W||210mm||N-Type TOPCon||22.2 %||Q2 2023|
|TW Solar||210TNC||690 W||210mm||N-Type TOPCon Bifacial||22.2 %||Q2 2023|
|EGING PV||Aurora Pro||685 W||210mm||N-Type TOPCon||22.0 %||Q2 2023|
|Canadian Solar||HiKu7||675 W||210mm||P-Type PERC||21.7 %||Q2 2022|
|Astronergy||Astro 6||670 W||210mm||P-Type PERC||21.6 %||Q1 2022|
|Yingli Solar||Mono GG||670 W||210mm||P-Type PERC||21.6 %||Q1 2022|
|Suntech||Ultra X Plus||670 W||210mm||P-Type PERC||21.6 %||Q1 2022|
|Seraphim||S5 Bifacial||670 W||210mm||P-Type PERC||21.6 %||Q1 2022|
|Talesun||BiPRO||670 W||210mm||P-Type PERC||21.6 %||Q1 2022|
|AE Solar||Aurora||665 W||210mm||P-Type PERC||21.4 %||Q2 2022|
|Jinko Solar||Tiger Pro NEO||620 W||182mm||N-Type TOPCon||22.3 %||Q3 2021|
|AIKO||Hole Series||625 W||182mm||N-Type Back Contact||23.7 %||Q3 2023|
|JA Solar||Deep Blue 4.0X||625 W||182mm||N-Type TOPCon Bifacial||22.4 %||Q2 2023|
HC = Half-cut cells, MBB = Multi busbars. Maximum panel size = 2.4m high x 1.35m wide.
Larger panel sizes
In the past, most increases in power came from efficiency gains due to advances in solar PV cell technology. While that is partly a driver behind the massive jump in panel wattage, the main factor is the new larger cell and panel sizes being developed together with a higher number of cells per panel. These new cell formats and configurations mean the panels have become physically larger in size. Generally, these large-format panels are best suited for utility-scale solar farms or large commercial installations.
Traditionally, solar panels were available in two main sizes. the standard format 60 cell panels (roughly 1.65m high x 1m wide) used for residential rooftops, and the larger format 72 cell commercial size panels (roughly 2m high x 1m wide). Then half-cut cell panels emerged in roughly the same size but with double the amount of half-size cells at 120 cells and 144 cells. Besides the standard sizes, a few premium manufacturers, such as SunPower and Panasonic, produce unique 96 and 104-cell panels.
The industry-standard panel size for much of the last decade was built around the 156mm x 156mm or 6-inch square cell format. However, the new panel sizes emerging are up to 2.4m long and 1.3m wide and built around the larger 180 and 210mm wafer cell sizes. This is a size increase of 20% to 30% compared to the traditional 2.0m x 1.0m 72-cell panels, which naturally corresponds to a considerable boost in power.
Larger cell sizes
To decrease manufacturing costs and gain efficiency, most manufacturers moved away from the standard 156mm (6”) square cell wafer size in 2020 in favour of larger wafer sizes. While there are a variety of cell sizes under development, a few sizes have emerged as the new industry standard; these include 166mm, 182mm and 210mm. Many of the leading manufacturers, including Jinko, Longi and Canadian, aligned with the 182mm format. Trina Solar is pushing the larger 210mm wafer size, while Longi, the world’s largest mono silicon wafer manufacturer, uses 166mm and 182mm sizes, depending on the application.
To remain competitive, many smaller volume manufacturers may need to align with one of the new wafer sizes to utilise common wafer and equipment suppliers. For a complete history and insight into wafer and PV cell sizing standards, this detailed article from PV Tech examines the various wafer and ingot sizes, technology changes, and manufacturing trends around current and future PV cells.
Along with the different cell sizes, there is a myriad of new panel configurations built around the many cell combinations. The three most popular which have emerged are 66-cell (half-cut 132), 78-cell (half-cut 156), and 84-cell (half-cut 168) panels. The extra-large 210mm cells are also well suited to unique cell dividing formats such as 1/3 cut cells; where the square wafer is divided into three segments rather than the common half-cut or half-size cell.
To achieve these impressive power ratings, panels and cells have not just increased in size, but cell efficiency has improved substantially using numerous new technologies (listed below) along with more advanced rear-side passivation techniques like TOPCon.
- MBB. Multi-busbars
- PERC/PERC. Passivated emitter rear cell
- Heterojunction (HJT)
- TOPCon. Tunnel-Oxide Passivating Contact
- N-type silicon cells
- High-density cells. Reducing inter-cell gaps
Manufacturers are exploring ways to increase power and cell efficiency by spending big on research and development. N-type silicon wafers are one of the best ways to boost efficiency but have traditionally been more costly. However, the price gap between P-type and N-type silicon is reducing as the economies of scale lower the cost of manufacturing the high-performance N-type silicon wafers used as the basis for more efficient HJT and TOPcon cells. In the future, Perovskite cell technology is expected to become stable and viable, allowing manufacturers to create next-generation tandem cells with power levels up to 800W.
Of the many cell improvements, the most common technology used to increase efficiency has been multi-busbars (MBB). Traditional ribbon busbars (5BB or 6BB) are being rapidly phased out in favour of nine or more thin wire busbars (9BB). Some manufacturers, such as REC have even moved to 16 micro-wire busbars in the new Alpha panel series. Wider cells also mean more busbars can fit across the cell surface with 10 or 12 busbars cells also becoming more common.
Bifacial panels featuring MBB are also growing in popularity due to the increased power output by utilising the rear side of the panel to achieve up to 20% or more power (roughly 80W extra). However, bifacial panels are generally only beneficial over light coloured surfaces such as light sandy or rocky ground used in large MW scale solar farms located in more arid areas.
To further boost panel efficiency and increase power, manufacturers such as Trina Solar have introduced techniques to eliminate the vertical inter-cell gap between cells. Removing the typical 2-3mm vertical gaps and squeezing the cells together results in more panel surface area being available to absorb sunlight and generate power. Manufacturers have developed a number of techniques to minimise or eliminate the gap with the most common being to simply reduce the cell spacing from around 2.0mm to 0.5mm. The reason for this gap was due to traditional larger ribbon busbars requiring 2.0mm to bend and interconnect the front and rear of each cell. However, the transition to using much smaller wire busbars enabled the gap to be reduced significantly.
LONGi Solar is another manufacturer that managed to reduce the inter-cell gap down to 0.6mm by using what the company describes as a “Smart soldering” method using integrated segmented ribbons. This new technology uses a unique triangular busbar design across the front surface of the cell, with a very thin flattened section that bends and runs behind the cell to form the interconnection.
TR. Tiling Ribbon technology
Jinko Solar, currently the world’s largest panel manufacturer, developed what the company refers to as Tiling Ribbon or TR cells. Tiling Ribbon cell technology is the elimination of the inter-cell gap by slightly overlapping the cells creating more cell surface area. This in turn boosts panel efficiency and power output. The tiling ribbon technology also dramatically reduces the amount of solder required through using inter-cell compression joining methods rather than soldering. Shingled cell panels, such as those used in the Sunpower Performance series, uses a similar technology where overlapping thin cell strips can be configured into larger format high-power panels.
Several other leading manufacturers such as Q Cells have taken a similar approach to boost efficiency by completely eliminating the inter-cell gap. However, most manufacturers have taken the more common approach and reduced the inter-cell clearance as much as possible leaving a very small 0.5mm gap; this effectively removes the gap without having to develop new cell interconnection techniques.
N-Type TOPCon silicon cells
Cells built on an N-type silicon substrate offer improved performance over the more common P-type silicon due to a greater tolerance to impurities which increases overall efficiency. In addition, N-type cells have a lower temperature coefficient compared to both mono and multi P-type cells. N-type cells also have a much lower rate of LID or light-induced degradation and do not generally suffer from LeTID (light and elevated temperature induced degradation) which is a common problem with P-type cells.
TOPCon or Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact refers to a specialised rear side cell passivation technique that helps reduce the internal recombination losses in the cell and boosts cell efficiency. The process has been available for several years but is now becoming the new industry standard as manufacturers strive to increase efficiency and performance.
Canadian Solar panels 2023 expert review
If you’re interested in going solar, chances are at least one of the installers you’ll talk to will offer Canadian Solar panels. As one of the top 5 solar panel manufacturers in the world, Canadian Solar has a long history of success and big plans for the future.
As one of the top 5 solar panel manufacturers in the world and one of SolarReviews’ best solar panel manufacturers for homeowners, Canadian Solar has a long history of success and big plans for the future.
Below, we’ll discuss how their solar panels compare to other top brands and whether you can trust them to last for multiple decades on your roof.
Why you can trust SolarReviews:
SolarReviews is the leading American website for consumer reviews and ratings of residential solar panels and solar panel installation companies. Our industry experts have over two decades of solar experience combined and maintain editorial independence for their reviews. No company can pay to alter the reviews or review scores shown on our site. Learn more about SolarReviews and how we make money.
- Canadian Solar is one of the 5 biggest solar panel manufacturers in the world, with 20 years in business, and SolarReviews has named the company the second-best solar manufacturer of 2023.
- The company’s residential solar panel lines are HiKu and HiDM, giving homeowners options in terms of performance and price.
- The HiKu product line is ideal for homeowners with limited roof space, since the panels have high-efficiency ratings. They also offer a better temperature coefficient.
- The HiDM solar panel line is cheaper than the HiKu line, they perform slightly less well in high temperatures and shaded conditions, and experience slightly faster performance degradation.
- Expect to spend about 17,000 to 20,000 for a typical 6 kW solar system that uses either of these Canadian Solar modules.
- The solar panel warranties offered by Canadian Solar meet or exceed the standard of the industry, and the company’s financial performance indicates they’ll be around to back those warranties up.
Find out if going solar is worth it where you live
Find out how much a solar system would cost for your specific home
About Canadian Solar
Canadian Solar Incorporated is one of the 5 largest solar module manufacturers in the world; as of late 2022, they had an annual production capacity of about 31 GW.
The company’s corporate headquarters is located in Guelph, Ontario, and they maintain a 500 MW manufacturing facility also in Canada. That said, the vast majority of Candian’s module manufacturing is done in China. In addition to the Chinese and Canadian facilities, Canadian Solar also manufactures various solar materials in Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brazil.
Canadian Solar was founded in 2001 by Dr. Shawn Qu, making it a relatively old solar manufacturer. It has since grown to employ thousands of people on several continents. The company is partially vertically integrated, meaning they not only make solar panels (also called ‘modules’), but also produce some of the raw silicon ingots, wafers, and solar cells that go into those panels.
Here’s a video of SolarReviews CEO Andy Sendy discussing how Canadian Solar fared in our ranking of the top solar panel brands:
Best Canadian Solar modules
As you might imagine with a company that has 20 years of solar manufacturing under its belt, Canadian Solar offers a large number of products.
The bread-and-butter of the company is its HiKu line, which comes in many varieties that can use either polycrystalline or monocrystalline silicon cells in configurations of 108, 120, 132, or 144 half-cells. For commercial and industrial markets, Canadian also offers a bifacial solar module called the BiHiKu.
For home use in the United States, Canadian offers two different product lines: HiKu and HiDM. Here’s some information about each of these products:
HiKu home solar modules
Canadian’s HiKu solar panels are their stock-standard offering.
Most models use industry-standard technology like half-cut monocrystalline PERC solar cells, but lower-cost modules also use polycrystalline cells. In fact, Canadian stands out for its continued use of poly cells, and they do a good job of making very high-quality modules using this relatively older technology.
There are three varieties of the HiKu product line: the HiKu Poly, HiKu Mono, and All-Black HiKu.
Base HiKu models for use in residential installations have model numbers that start with CS3 followed by a string of numbers and letters that correspond to the module’s wattage and cell type. For example, CS3L-360P is a 360-watt polycrystalline module, while CS3L-360MS is a 360-watt monocrystalline module.
The three varieties of Canadian’s HiKu product line. Image source: Canadian Solar
If roof space is at a premium, choose the mono modules, which have efficiencies up to 20.8% and can generate up to 385 watts in the same footprint as a poly panel, which maxes out at 370 watts. The mono modules also offer a better temperature coefficient, which means they’re better for hot climates (lower temperature coefficient means their energy output is reduced by smaller amounts as temperatures rise).
If you demand an all-black solar panel, Canadian Solar has you covered, as it offers the HiKu in an All-Black version.
The only difference is the All-Black HiKu is slightly less efficient, because its non-reflective black backsheet causes it to retain more heat, and therefore causes the cells inside to produce less energy. Sure looks nice, though.
A newer version of the HiKu was introduced in early 2022. HiKu6 modules have model numbers that begin with CS6, followed by additional characters that describe the number of cells and wattage. For example, CS6R-420MS is a 420-watt module with 108 half-cut mono PERC cells.
HiKu6 modules come with standard aluminum frames and white backsheets in 395 to 420-watt power ratings, or in an All-Black version that can output between 380 and 405 watts, depending on the efficiency of the cells inside.
Canadian Solar’s HiKu line offers both product and performance warranties. The standard warranties include 12 years of protection against failures related to materials and workmanship, and a 25-year performance guarantee that the panels will make at least 98% of their rated power by the end of the first year, and degrade by no more than 0.55% per year until the end of the 25th year.
But wait, there’s more! Canadian Solar is now offering 25-year product warranties on select models. If you purchase a residential system in the U.S. after July 1, 2021 that uses monocrystalline HiKu modules with model numbers that start with CS3N or CS3W, you’ve got extra warranty coverage! Unfortunately, the HiKu6 maintains only 12 years of workmanship coverage in the US.
HiDM home solar modules
There are two varieties of Canadian Solar’s HiDM modules: the standard HiDM and the HiDM All-Black. Canadian’s HiDM solar modules are made in the company’s Korean factory using shingled, mono PERC solar cells.
The shingling means that the 60 cells can fit into a smaller area than if they were laid out with spaces between each one. These panels can be ideal for houses with small roofs, because they produce slightly more watts per square meter than HiKu panels.
HiDM panels come in standard and All-Black models. Image source: Canadian Solar
That said, HiDM modules tend to be a little cheaper per watt than Canadian’s other offerings. They perform slightly less well in high temperatures and shaded conditions, and also suffer slightly faster performance degradation than the HiKu modules.
Modules in the HiDM line come with both product and production warranties. Under the product warranty, you’ll be protected against defects in materials and workmanship for the first 15 years after installation.
The production warranty states that the HiDM panels will output no less than 97.5% of their original nameplate rating during the first year, and power output will decline by no more than 0.6% per year until the end of the 25th year.
These are fairly standard warranty numbers, with the 15-year product warranty being a bit better than the standard 12 years offered by most Tier 1 manufacturers.
Cost and availability
Canadian’s HiKu and HiDM solar panels come in at around the average price of Tier 1 solar panels. Expect to spend about 17,000 to 20,000 for a typical 6 kW solar system that uses these products, based on the current cost of solar panels nationwide.
That cost can change based on system size, your location, and the complexity of your roof, as well as the availability of solar incentives and rebates. find out which you are eligible for here.
Bottom line: Are Canadian Solar panels any good?
Canadian Solar makes excellent products and backs them up with warranties that meet or exceed the industry standard. The are competitive, and the company has a relatively long history of profitable operation, so you can be sure they’ll be around to back up those warranties.
A system that uses Canadian Solar panels is a good investment, in any state where solar panels make financial sense. If you’re ready to find an installer near you, start by using our free solar calculator to determine how much solar you’ll need for your specific home, and get cost and savings estimates.
Navigating towards zero-carbon emissions
Tri-functional factories in City of Elmina 97% taken up
Consortium members Haitai Solar, China Machinery Engineering Corp, Adam Digital Assets and Solar Pulse inked a cooperative agreement on the plant project at the Carbon Conference 2023.
KUCHING: A consortium, comprising Chinese and Malaysian companies, plans to invest US1.5bil (RM6.76bil) in the first integrated low carbon silicon-based materials plant to produce solar panels in Samalaju Industrial Park, Bintulu.
Consortium members Haitai Solar, China Machinery Engineering Corp (CMEC), Adam Digital Assets Sdn Bhd and Solar Pulse Sdn Bhd inked a cooperative agreement on the plant project during the three-day Carbon Conference 2023, which ends here today.
The signatories were Haitai Solar chairman Wang Yong, CMEC director Richard Zhang, Adam Digital chairman Tan Sri Khalid Abu Bakar and Solar Pulse president Izzat Sulaiman.
The signing ceremony was witnessed by Sarawak Deputy Minister of International Trade, Industry and Investment Datuk Dr Malcolm Mussen Lamoh.
Haitai Solar is one of the world’s largest photovoltaic modules manufacturers, which focuses on green energy with five business divisions – photovoltaic modules, utility scale power plant, photovoltaic brackets, energy storage and hydrogen energy.
CMEC is an engineering procurement,construction and commissioning (EPCC) company, which has delivered many types of engineering projects. Solar Pulse has an extensive experience in self consumption rooftop solar projects in Malaysia.
Sarawak-based Adam Digital, which conceptualised the integrated low carbon silicon-based materials plant project, provides innovative green energy solutions to the region. Khalid said the plant project is expected to kick off next year for completion in 2025.
The plant is scheduled to be fully operational by 2026.
“The establishment of the factory involving investment worth RM6.8bil will be the pioneer in South-East Asia that utilises a raw material – silica – to produce solar panels. It will have a positive impact to Sarawak economically, socially and environmentally.
According to Khalid, upon fully operational, the plant is expected to employ 200 professionals and 3,800 skilled workers.
This will help to achieve 40% of the Sarawak Post-Covid-19 Development Strategy 2030’s target of creating new employment opportunities in the high-tech related industries.
The consortium will be working closely with skilled institutions, colleges and universities in Sarawak to come up with designated modules, specifically on solar technology, to train more highly skilled personnel in the industry.
Malcolm Mussen said, as the consortium would introduce new silicon technology that is more environmentally friendly, it would help reduce the level of carbon emissions in line with Sarawak’s Green Economy agenda.
“I believe that with this new innovation and technology, Sarawak will be seen as a pioneer in the global warming initiative to reduce low-carbon emissions, and the ministry supports such efforts,” he added.
Meanwhile, at the conference, SaraCarbon Sdn Bhd has been granted a forest carbon study permit by the Sarawak government.
The permit allows the company to study the potential of undertaking a carbon nature-based project within Samling industrial tree plantation area in Marudi,northern Sarawak.
SaraCarbon chief executive officer Lawrence Chia said the permit would allow the development of a project that is potentially a game-changer in driving Sarawak’s pivot towards green energy.
Chia, who is also Samling Strategic Corp Sdn Bhd CEO said the Marudi project is aligned with the state government’s objective to reduce greenhouses gases and to provide a new source of revenue for Sarawak.
Separately, Petroleum Sarawak Bhd has been issued with the first licence for carbon storage to begin its strategic role as a manager for Sarawak’s natural carbon capture,utilisation and storage resources.
The licence from Sarawak Land and Survey Department covers an area located in the North Luconia Province offshore Bintulu.