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Can I Use Solar Panels Without Battery Storage. Connecting solar to house

Can I Use Solar Panels Without Battery Storage. Connecting solar to house

    The Secrets to Connecting Different Solar panels in Series or Parallel- The Definitive Guide

    In this article we show you:

    Let’s get straight to the point.

    The basics of connecting different photovoltaic panels in series or parallel

    Mixing solar panels of various voltage or wattage, or produced by different manufacturers, is a frequently asked question by most DIYers.

    Though mixing different solar panels is not recommended, it’s not forbidden and things would be ok as long as each panel’s electrical parameters (voltage, wattage, amps) are carefully considered.

    When you intend to wire two panels produced by different vendors, the vendors are not the problem.

    The problem is in different electrical characteristics of the panels, together with different performance degradation.

    We put solar panels together to increase the solar-generated power.

    Connecting more than one solar panel in series, in parallel or in a mixed-mode is an effective and easy way not only to build a cost-effective solar panel system but also helps us add more solar panels in the future to meet our increasing daily needs for electricity.

    How to connect your solar panels depends on:

    • The type of your solar panels system,
    • The solar power you want to generate,
    • The other system components, such as a charge controller, battery, and inverter.

    There are two main types of connecting solar panels – in series or in parallel. You connect solar panels in series when you want to get a higher voltage.

    If you, however, need to get higher current, you should connect your panels in parallel.

    Should you need both a higher voltage and a higher current, you have to apply both connection modes, which means that a part of your solar panels should be wired in series, while the remaining ones are to be wired in parallel.

    The most important to remember is that both connection modes provide you with a higher wattage.

    Therefore, if the power output of a solar panel cannot alone meet your daily electricity needs, you should think of adding more such panels to it, whether in series or in parallel.

    To get the maximum efficient solar panel system, however, you should keep some basic principles related to connecting solar panels.

    Wiring solar photovoltaic panels in series

    As we said above, when connecting solar panels in series, we get an increased wattage in combination with a higher voltage.

    Such ‘higher voltage’ means that series connection is more often applied in grid-tied solar systems where:

    1) the system voltage is often at least 24 volts, and

    2) the solar array output voltage is fed to an inverter or charge controller of a typically higher input voltage compared to off-grid systems.

    Connecting in series means joining the positive terminal of a solar panel to the negative terminal of the next solar panel until eventually you are left with one free positive and one free negative terminal of the array, which are to be connected to the input either of the inverter (in case of a grid-tied system without a battery backup) or the charge controller (in case of a grid-tied system with a battery backup or off-grid solar panel system).

    When you connect solar panels in series, the total output current of the solar array is the same as the current passing through a single panel, while the total output voltage is a sum of the voltage drops on each solar panel.

    The latter is only valid provided that the panels connected are of the same type and power rating.

    Let’s consider the depicted below solar panels designated for a 12V solar panel system, operating at their Maximum Power Point, while delivering the depicted voltage and current that correspond to this power tracking point.

    Wiring solar panels of different ratings in series

    Here is a series connection of solar panels of different voltage ratings and the same current rating:

    You can see that if one of the solar panels has a lower voltage rating (and the same current rating) compared to the remaining panels, the output power is lower than in the previous example but the loss is not significant. Things, however, are entirely different if you connect in series panels of different current ratings.

    You should, however, have in mind that the current produced from а solar panel depends on the ambient temperature, solar cells temperature, and solar irradiance.

    If the lower wattage solar panel is from different series or a different brand, it might behave differently under the same ambient conditions.

    For example, if under the same environmental conditions the solar panel of the different wattage (i.e., 136W) has a lower current (for example, 7.5A), it would drag the performance of the whole solar array down, because it would limit the solar array’s current to 7.5A.

    The performance of the solar array is as strong as the performance of the weakest element.

    In a series connection, such a weak element is the solar panel with the lowest current.

    The following example reveals this in more details.

    This time we have a series connection of solar panels of different voltage ratings and different current ratings:

    In this picture, you can see that a total of three different types of solar panels are used.

    Each panel type has its own voltage, current, and power rating.

    The total current here is determined by the panel of the lowest current rating and, as a result, the total wattage is severely reduced (by 40%) compared to the previous example where the loss of output power is not so significant.

    Furthermore, if you take a look in the first panel in the row, and assume that you have wired four such panels in parallel, then the total output power would be: 4 x 85W = 340W.

    Just compare this to the dramatically reduced wattage of 365W, and you’ll find out that if you connect in series solar panels with different voltage and current ratings, the total output power is determined mostly by the solar panel of the lowest rating!

    What is more, let’s imagine an ideal fictitious situation where the current does not influence the performance of the solar array – the total harvested solar power would be 515W (85W126W152W152W)!

    Wiring solar pv panels in parallel

    The next basic type of connecting solar panels is in parallel.

    Connecting solar panels in parallel is just the opposite of series connection and is used to increase the total output current of the array, and hence the total output power while keeping the same voltage.

    ‘The same voltage’ is the system voltage which for off-grid solar panels systems is usually as low as either 6V or 12V.

    For this reason, parallel connection is more typical for off-grid systems.

    In the parallel connection, all the positive terminals of the panels are joined together, and all the negative terminals are also joined together.

    Eventually, you have one common positive and one common negative terminal of the solar array which are to be connected to input either of the inverter (in case of a grid-tied system without a battery backup) or the charge controller (in case of a grid-tied system with a battery backup or off-grid system).

    When you connect solar panels in parallel, the total output voltage of the solar array is the same as the voltage of a single panel, while the total output current is a sum of the currents passing through each panel.

    The latter is only valid provided that the panels connected are of the same type and power rating.

    Wiring solar panels of different ratings in parallel

    Here is a parallel connection of solar panels of different voltage ratings and the same current rating:

    As you can see, things are getting worse, since the total voltage of the array is determined by the solar panel of the lowest voltage rating: we received 11% loss of installed solar power.

    Let’s see what happens when we bring even more diversity and connect in parallel solar panels of different voltage and current ratings:

    Things are steadily getting worse, but it’s evident that what you lose here as wattage is much lower compared to connecting different solar panels in series.

    Important to summarize:

    Both in series and parallel connection, plugging a panel of a lower power rating to the array drags the whole output power down.

    The lower the rating, the higher the loss of solar generated power.

    This, however, is much more crucial for panels connected in parallel.

    Therefore, if you want to get the maximum power from your solar array, you should only connect similar panels.

    Mixing different panels, whether connected in series or in parallel, ALWAYS reduces the installed wattage.

    Furthermore, if you don’t have any other option than wiring dissimilar panels, you should know that:

    1) For series connection – the same current rating of the panels is more important.

    2) For parallel connection – the same voltage rating of the panels is more important.

    Mixed wiring of solar panels

    A combination of series and parallel connection is also possible.

    Indeed, this depends on the maximum possible total output voltage and maximum possible total output current of the solar array, which are limited by the maximum input voltage and the maximum input current of your charge controller (for off-grid systems) or inverter (for grid-tied systems).

    Calculations show you how many panels and how to wire.

    What you have to remember is that the series connection increases voltage, while the parallel connection increases current.

    Both series and parallel connection result in more installed wattage, which goes down should you decide to wire solar panels of different ratings.

    If you decide to apply a mixed connection, it’s practical your solar array to comprise an even number of panels (a multiple of 2), for example, 4 panels (2 in series and 2 in parallel) or 6 panels (3 in series and 2 in parallel).

    If the system sizing calculations result in an odd number of panels (for example, 3 or 5), and you are sure you are not going to add more panels in the future, it’s practical to use either series or parallel wiring.

    If anyway you prefer wiring solar panels of different ratings rather than spending money to buy similar solar panels and end up with an installed wattage you’ll never need, it is a Smart idea to separate the panels in two sets and wire them in parallel.

    In such a case, however, you should either search for a charge controller (or inverter, for grid-tied systems) with at least two input feeds or install a second charge controller (or inverter, for grid-tied systems).

    As you see, with a solar array comprising different solar panels, the only way to avoid losses of the installed wattage is separating the panels in individual circuits, for the sake, however, of possibly more complicated wiring and more expensive charge controller or inverter.

    What we recommend:1) Use panels that have the same ratings.

    2) When connecting different solar panels, in order to minimize the losses:

    • Connect only in series panels of the different brands and of the same current.
    • Connect in parallel panels of different brands and of the same voltage.
    • Connecting different solar panels in a solar array is not recommended since either the voltage or the current might get reduced. This leads to lower output power, and hence to less solar-generated electricity. Therefore, if you are planning to use dissimilar panels, try to pick ones with similar voltage and current.
    • Every different panel in a solar array has a different optimal solar power tracking point at a given moment. Let’s suppose that you are using an MPTT charge controller. Different solar panels reduce the effectiveness of the controller to track this optimal power point. An MPPT solar charge controller is a smarter device than a PWM charge controller regarding its capability to squeeze more solar power by tracking the optimal power point of the PV panels or solar array. While searching for the optimal compromise, however, it is not Smart enough to triangulate between so much different optimal power points.

    How to squeeze more solar power from different solar panels by breaking the best practice rules?

    You might say, I have these different panels.

    I’ve bought them. It was a real bargain.

    I don’t want to throw them away.

    What can I do to squeeze the optimal solar power from them?

    Yes, you can do that, but it requires some investment.

    You should buy additional charge controller(s) and try to isolate these dissimilarities by implementing ‘Ideal Mixing.’

    Here is an Ideal Mixing of different solar panels of the same voltage, connected in parallel, with the help of a charge controller:

    Scenario 1. The solar panels and the charge controller are designated for the same system voltage.

    In this case, you may use PWM controllers, if you are going for a low-cost solution.

    The picture above depicts the connection of two different 12V solar panels: 100W (18Vmp x 5.5A Imp) and 50W (18Vmp x 2.77 Imp) designated for a solar power system of a 12V system voltage.

    They might be, for example, one monocrystalline and one polycrystalline solar panel.

    Or the pv panels from the same type(i.e. poly or mono) but produced by different manufacturers.

    What is more, you may use this scheme not only to isolate dissimilarities between different types of solar panels but also to mitigate the differences, caused by the environment, between exactly the same photovoltaic panels. For example, by doing so, you will avoid the performance degradation when one of the PV panels is partially shaded during the day or pointing out to a sub-optimal direction.

    Please, have in mind that this a simplified diagram. Hence, the additional equipment needed for combining these solar panels, like DC combiner boxes and fuses, are omitted.

    What comes next is Ideal Mixing of different photovoltaic panels of the different voltages with the help of a charge controller:

    Scenario 2. The solar panels are of voltage rating higher than the system voltage.

    You have two different higher voltage solar panels, i.e., one 100W/24V and one 200W/24V that you want to connect to the already working 12 V solar power system comprising the two 12V 50 W solar panels connected in parallel from the previous scenario(see the picture above).

    In this case, you have to use a step-down MPPT charge controller capable of stepping the 24 V solar panel voltage down to 12V.

    Why MPPT charge controllers?

    Why not using the low-cost PW controller you might ask?

    Because the MPPT charge controllers convert the voltage difference between 24V solar panel and 12V battery bank to an increase in its output current that is twice higher compared to using a PWM charge controller.

    With this twice higher current, the power provided at the output of the MPPT controller would be almost two times higher compared to the usage of a step-down PWM controller.

    Please, have in mind that this a simplified diagram. Hence, the equipment needed for combining these solar panels and fuses need are omitted.

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    Can I Use Solar Panels Without Battery Storage?

    With all the buzz about energy storage, you might be wondering if a solar battery bank is an essential for home solar systems. Can you even use solar panels on your home without battery storage?

    The short answer is, yes you can. Although there are advantages to having a solar battery backup in certain situations, it’s not essential for everyone.

    In this article, we’ll explore some scenarios in which having battery storage with solar panels is beneficial, and some in which sticking with simple rooftop solar panels could be the way to go.

    How to Use Solar Panels Directly Without Battery

    If battery storage isn’t in the cards for now, don’t worry! You can still use your solar panels to power your home without battery storage. In fact, a majority of home solar systems aren’t connected to battery storage.

    Here’s how it works:

    Early morning and evening are times with lower solar production, but higher energy needs. You’re waking up and getting ready for the day, or making dinner and doing homework with the kids. That’s when you’ll need a lot of power, but also when solar panel production is just getting momentum or tapering off.

    During these times (and especially at night) solar owners without battery storage draw power from the grid, which acts as a giant energy backup system.

    But during the day your solar panels are likely providing more than enough energy to power your home. The excess energy is sent into the grid to power your local community.

    Simply put, when the sun’s shining, you use your own solar power and send excess power to the grid; when it’s not, you draw from the grid.

    This kind of setup is called a grid-tied system. You essentially use the local utility grid as a battery to “store energy” without needing a solar battery bank in your home.

    If you have your own battery storage, you likely won’t transfer much energy to or from the grid. You store your own energy and pull from that, and the grid serves as a backup to the backup.

    Net energy metering

    If you live in a state with net energy metering, you earn credit for sending your excess energy to the grid. At the end of the year, those credits are used to offset the cost of the energy you pulled from the grid. With just a recent energy bill, solar.com can generate multiple quotes for solar systems that offset 100% of your electricity use.

    That means instead of paying for grid energy, you’re only paying for your solar equipment. And once you’re equipment is paid off, you’re paying nothing for electricity!

    Do I Need Battery For My Solar System?

    It many cases, battery storage is a “nice to have” with solar panels for home use. However, there are a growing number of scenarios where having a solar battery bank is beneficial, if not completely necessary.

    Scenario #1: You experience frequent or prolonged power outages

    First, if you live in an area with one or more of the following, battery backup is a good idea.

    A home battery bank is especially crucial if you have essential systems — like medical equipment or an electric well pump — that you need to power when the grid is down. In fact, the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California offers rebates up to 100% of the cost of battery storage for Californians in these circumstances.

    Florida is another state where frequent and prolonged power outages make solar and battery beneficial.

    Scenario #2: You have a unfavorable net metering policy

    In addition to backup power, battery storage can also be a means to greater energy cost savings. Energy utilities in many states are working to remove or replace net metering policies. In California, for example, the proposed NEM 3.0 policy would reduce the value of solar exports by around 75%.

    Currently, California solar owners are earning around 30 cents per kWh for the excess energy they put on the grid. Under NEM 3.0, they would earn closer to 8 cents per kWh, in which case it makes more financial sense to have a battery bank to store and use your own solar electricity.

    There are also states and utilities with no net metering policies at all. In these areas, it makes more sense to store and use your own energy instead of putting it back on the grid.

    Scenario #3: Your utility has Time of Use rates

    In some places, the price of grid electricity fluctuates throughout the day based on demand. This is known as time of use rates, or TOU.

    Typically, electricity is most expensive in evening when people are home cooking, watching TV, and running heat or AC. Unfortunately, solar production isn’t great in the evening, and solar owners end up pulling from the grid.

    With battery storage, you can not only avoid peak pricing, you can take advantage of it by using — or even exporting — cheap solar electricity generated and stored during the day. This is especially beneficial if you have large electrical loads such as electric heat, air conditioning, or an electric vehicle.

    Scenario #4: You want to be energy independent

    If you live in a remote, isolated area without a central utility grid, you will need a battery storage device to capture your solar generation for later use. This is essential if you want to have the lights on at night when your system isn’t generating.

    Even if you are within reach of a utility grid, many people prefer to generate and store their own clean electricity. Most utilities rely on fossil fuels to generate electricity. By pairing solar and battery storage, you reduce the demand for dirty energy.

    Fortunately, the Inflation Reduction Act expanded the tax credit to 30% of the gross cost for battery storage. Learn more about the Residential Clean Energy Credit for battery storage here.

    Is It Okay to Use Solar Panels Without Battery Storage?

    Absolutely! In fact, most home solar systems are currently operating without battery storage.

    solar, panels, battery, storage

    If you’re fine with drawing from the grid and not particularly worried about power outages, you might not need a battery.

    However, there are benefits to having battery storage for your solar panels. In addition to backup power, battery storage is becoming more beneficial as net metering policies change and more utilities adopt time of use rates. It’s also a means of achieving energy independence and ditching fossil fuels altogether.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Can I use solar panels and inverters without battery?

    Yes, if you are connected to an electrical grid, you can use solar panels and inverters without battery storage. However, it’s important to note that grid-tied solar systems are usually shutoff during power outages to prevent the backflow of electricity from harming utility workers.

    A few inverter manufacturers, namely Enphase and SMA, have products that allow you to directly power essential loads during blackouts even without battery storage. This is called “islanding” your solar system.

    How does solar work without batteries?

    Without battery storage, solar systems typically to use the utility grid as a battery. Solar energy is first used to directly power your home and the excess energy is pushed onto the local grid to power neighboring systems. When the solar system is underproducing, the home draws electricity from the local grid.

    Through net metering, homeowners earn credit for the excess energy to offset the energy they pull from the grid. This allows solar owners to essentially replace their electricity bill with lower payments on their solar system.

    How to store solar energy without batteries?

    In most residential settings, excess solar energy is “stored” on the local utility grid. And by “stored,” we mean used to power your neighbor’s house.

    So, if you produce more solar electricity than your home needs, the excess sent onto the grid and used to power neighboring systems. This not only reduces demand from the central utility, it reduces wear on the grid because as the electrical current travels less distance.

    For commerical applications, there are a number of ways to store solar energy without batteries. According to the EPA, these include:

    solar, panels, battery, storage
    • Pumped hydroelectric
    • Compressed air
    • Flywheels
    • Thermal energy storage

    Potential energy comes in many forms — not just rechargeable batteries!

    Introduction: DIY SOLAR ON-GRID AND OFF GRID PROJECT

    I am really found of solar energy and my dream is to shift my house consumption totally on renewable energy.

    I want to design a system which feed the grid in the morning and also manages my load consumption directly from solar, which can be achieved by ON-Grid system and in evening i want to use the energy which is stored in the battery which can be achieved by OFF-Grid system.

    In this instructable i will take all of you through the experience of building a DIY ON.Grid system and OFF-Grid system.

    In this instructable we will move step by step, In section one we will cover the ON-Grid System and cover all the topics related to it. In second section we will cover OFF-Grid system step by step.

    Solar energy is an amazing energy option, As now a days due to high production the cost of solar panel has reduced with an invincible amount.,

    My budget is really very low so i have managed the project with good quality product in a productive way.

    Step 1: Section 1 : ON-GRID SYSTEM

    In section 1 we will cover the on grid system and explain it in detail with step by step method.

    Step 1 : What is an ON-Grid system?

    Step 3 : Material Required

    Step 4 : Planning for installation

    It will be really interesting to learn and get knowledge about solar energy.

    solar, panels, battery, storage

    Step 2: Step 1 : What Is an ON-Grid System ?

    We know that if we store energy in battery’s so it will result in 30% loss of energy while storing it. so there is one more option to increase the efficiency of our system that is an ON-Grid system.

    In On-Grid system solar panels are placed on the rooftop ,The electricity generated by the solar panel is direct current and the electricity we use in our houses is alternate current so to convert DC to AC we need an inverter to convert it.

    But as the system have to connect with the grid so we require Grid Tie inverter which will convert the DC to AC in the same frequency as we are getting it from our energy provider company.

    The Grid tie inverter is connected to our mains through a solar meter which will just calculate the solar unit generated, Than the the connections are made with the NET METER, which calculate the units consumed from the electrical company and also have the data about the solar unit generated.

    The net meter gives the net unit consumed.

    NET UNIT = ( UNIT CONSUMED FROM ENERGY COMPANY.- SOLAR UNIT)

    On-Grid system can be understood more easily from an example :

    Suppose we have placed a solar Grid tie system of 3000 W. and in the morning around 11 Am, The system is producing 2700 W.

    The consumption in our house is 1500 w ( consumed by fan, LED TV.etc.) so the 1500 W will be supplied directly from the solar system and remaining Wattage will be feed back to the grid. ( 2700-1500=1200 W)

    And Suppose if we have a party @ our place in morning and our consumption reaches to 4000 W so our solar system will provide us with 2700 W and the remaining 1300 W will be supplied by the electrical energy company.

    In ON-GRID system suppose we are out for the day and our system generates 12 units and in the evening when we reach home and switch on the Air condition and light so we can use the same amount of unit at night,

    we can consume all 12 units which we have generated in the morning so in this system the grid acts as our battery.

    Step 3: Step 2 : How It Works ?

    Solar Panels

    The solar panels are made up of photovoltaic (PV) cells, which convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity throughout the day.

    This device converts the DC electricity generated by the solar panels into the alternating current (AC) electricity.

    Electrical Panel

    The AC electricity is sent from the inverter to your electrical panel to power your lights and appliances with solar energy. The electrical panel is often called a breaker box.

    Utility Meter

    The utility meter measures your energy use. It actually goes backward when your system generates more power than you immediately need. This excess solar energy offsets the energy you use at night.

    Utility Grid

    Your business is still connected to the grid. You’ll need that power from the utility company at night, but don’t worry. The cost is offset by any excess solar energy you put into the grid during the day.

    Power Guide Monitoring System

    Power Guide monitoring system continuously tracks your energy production and ensures that your solar power system is running smoothly.

    So a grid tie system consist of these all elements with the designated work.

    Step 4: Step 3 : Material Required

    In my case i wanted to install the complete 3000 W solar system but due to shortage of funds i am installing 3 KW of grid tie inverter and 1500W solar panels for now, in the future i will double the solar panel accordingly.

    1) Solar panels 250 W x 6 Pieces = 1500 W

    2) Grid Tie inverter ( Sukam Grid Tie inverter 3 KW )

    3) 4 mm Wire roll 90 Meter ( Both AC and DC)

    6) Iron L Angle of 50ft length ( IN MY CASE) 50 mm x 50 mm x 5 mm

    These things are required to complete the installation.

    In AC wire the inner gauge of wire is lower approx to 15.20 where as in DC wire the gauge of wire is higher around 30. by using these different wires the efficiency will increase.

    In structure making or fixing inverter and panels we require drill machine and some tools.

    We even require concrete mixture to fix the structure with the roof.

    Step 5: Step 4 : Planning for Installation

    So in this step we will understand the load calculation of our house, which will give us an idea of the wattage of system we require. site inspection. making structure, placing the panels, installing inverter. etc

    1) Calculating our consumption load

    suppose in 1 day we watch 2 hours of TV. our geyser works for 2 hours, fan works for 10 hours and light for 8 hours.

    So the appliance wattage is mentioned on there description part which is :

    So we get the wattage of each appliances, We must know that these appliances will consume this much wattage in 1 hour so to get the consumption of our day, we will multiply the hours usage with the particular appliances wattage.

    Total consumption in a day = 4444 Watts.

    this is our one day consumption which is equal to 4.4 kw means 4.4 electricity unit.

    So how many solar panels i have to install?

    Answer is : 1 kw of panels produces 4 units in a day, when we will divide our daily consumption with the 4 than we will get the wattage of panels that we want to install like.

    Now on yearly basis and based on tropical region this calculation changes as some countries have more sunny hours and some have less.

    The above calculation is done for INDIA. Where we have 6 hours of bright sunshine in summers.

    SITE EVALUATION

    In this step we calculate the rooftop area which is available for installing solar panels, 1 kw of solar installation requires 80 Sq ft-100 Sq ft of area. The difference of 20 Sq ft is because of the cleaning space a person requires to clean panels.

    In my case i have approx 50 sq ft of space available for the installation of 1500 w so i have decided to up lift the structure by 8 ft and extend the structure outside my roof boundary, It is legal as the boundary of solar panels comes under the fence of my roof.

    But i will recommend you to install the panels close to the roof surface as it will be easy for you to clean the panels after installation, in my case it is a challenge but i can utilize the space below the panels for plants.

    STRUCTURE DESIGNING

    Designing of structure is the main process as you have to make to withstand for more than 20 years,

    In my case i am using the iron angles of ( 50 mm x 50 mm x 5 mm ) as it will provide more strength to my structure, The main point that we have to keep in our mind is the solar panel facing and its tilt angle.

    As we all know sun rises from east and goes to west, so our solar panel face would be gr8 toward south.

    In any country we can place the panel in south facing ,whereas the tilt angle vary according to the latitude and longitude of that place.

    We can find ours from the link provided : http://www.solarpaneltilt.com/

    In INDIA the tilt angle varies from 14 Deg to 28 Deg so we have chosen an angle of 18 Deg for fixing the structure as in summer the solar panel will generate approximately the equal amount of electricity as it will generate @ 28 Deg, But in case of winter the sunshine timing is really less and our uses of wattage also gets reduced, so it is ok if we generate less electricity. the difference of electricity is not to high in winters it is approx 0.5 unit loss in 3 Kw system.

    I will fix the structure by welding 20 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm iron plate and fastening it by the roof and after that we will fix it by making a concrete block around it.

    Step 6: Step 5 : Connections

    In this step we will install solar panels and do connection process till its end.

    First we have to attach the solar panels on the structure, so to install it we are using J clamps and fixing the panels with the help of this as shown in the image.

    Once we are done with installing solar panels we will connect the panels in series, lets discuss about the connections.

    Series connection

    In series connection suppose there are six panels so we will connect the VE terminal of 1St panel to the. VE terminal of the second panel similarly the Ve terminal of second panel is connected to the.VE terminal of 3rd panel similarly it goes like that, In series connection the voltage are added Example if we have 1 panel of 24 v and if we connect the 6 panels in series than we will get the output voltage equals to 144volts and the ampere will remain same.

    so in On-Grid system we will connect the panels in series connection which is required as we receive the higher voltage by the Grid tie inverter.

    parallel connection

    In parallel connection suppose there are 2 solar panels of 12 v each and we connect the VE terminal of first panel with the VE terminal of second panel and similar for.VE terminal as well, The output we get is of 12 Volt only but the ampere will increase, If single panel produces 4 Amp that in paraller connection we get the output of 12V 8 Amp.

    After connecting all the panels in series the output we will receive is around 144 Volts so please do the connections in the evening as if you will do in morning you can get electric shocks as the potential voltage of solar panel is high in morning.

    The output first go to the junction breaker box and then goes to the Grid tie inverter.

    so as you all know that i am only connecting 1500 W to my 3 KW inverter, There are two section in inverter to connect two arrays of panels and we have only one array of panels so we will connect only single array to the inverter. the operating voltage of the inverter is 120V so our inverter will operate successfully in 6 panels of 250 W.

    In the above images as we can see we have connected the DC wires to the PV section and the output wire also,

    Now we will simply connect the output wires to our mains (NOTE : There are 3 output wires 1) Phase Wire 2) Neutral wire 3) Ground wire.)

    So we have to connect them accordingly to our mains box.

    That’s it now we can raise a request for inspection and converting our previous meter to net meter, it will take the time of 2 weeks and the inspection will be done in 1 week.

    This system is really easy, and i enjoyed a lot to build this project. feeling really happy by generating green energy.

    Step 7: Step 6 : Test Run

    So when the process of meter installation and inspection is done, than the electrical energy company has provided us with a certificate that mentions the project is approved and installed under the criteria of the government agencies.

    SO to test run first switch on the DC supply as if we have put the panels polarity in a wrong way so our inverter can show the red light in fault section.

    We should buy the grid tie inverter which has islanding feature, In this feature if the grid goes down so the inverter will also stop working and do not supply electricity to the grid. it is mandatory as most of the inverter does not have this feature.

    So in 1 month i saved 188 units which is awesome for me as my bill in earlier months have 350 unit consumed but now its only 120 units consumed.

    Step 8: Section 2 ( OFF-GRID SYSTEM )

    In section 2 we will cover the off grid system and explain it in detail with step by step method.

    Step 1 : What is an OFF-Grid system?

    Step 3 : Material Required

    Step 4 : Planning for installation

    It will be really interesting to learn and get knowledge about solar energy.

    Step 9: Step 1 : What Is an OFF-Grid System?

    Off-grid system is feasible for the villages where there is no electricity or the power cuts are high.

    In this system the electricity produced by solar panels are stored in battery’s which stores the charge and provide backup when required. we can understand this with an example.

    Suppose i bought a hut in the village where the electricity is not provided by any company and people living there uses kerosene oils to illuminate there house, so i decided to place solar panel on my roof and store the electricity in my battery which i can use in the evening to power my appliances and lights. this system is an independent system.

    As i am living in the city and power cuts are really rare,so i am installing an hybrid solar interface system.

    In morning it charges the battery from solar energy and in the evening it will automatically cut the supply of grid electricity to the power points which runs on inverter and supply them with battery power. this system suits me because in the morning my house will run on green energy from the On-Grid system and in the evening the load will shift to OFF-Grid system.

    Step 10: Step 2 : How It Works ?

    Solar Panels

    The solar panels are made up of photovoltaic (PV) cells, which convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity throughout the day.

    Off-Grid interface

    It has various functions,

    It acts as a charge controller, the solar energy generated flows through it and goes to battery once the battery is fully charged it cut off the supply of DC charge going towards battery.

    This system is connected to ( Battery. Home inverter. solar panels. Main supply)

    It has a deep switch which even controls the discharge of battery according to our power cuts, if we have high power cuts than we can feed the code accordingly to maintain the battery charged %.

    if we have less power cut than we can use the battery just by leaving it 20% charge for emergency.

    Once the energy of the battery is utilized than the lights connected to the inverter shifts to mains automatically.

    It is used to store the electricity in DC form and manages to provide the backup when needed

    Voltage =12 V Amp/Hr= 150 Amp/Hr

    We are using solar battery having c10 plate which charges fast as compare to normal c20 battery.

    We can also use the lithium ion battery like power wall i am making one will share soon.

    This device converts the DC electricity generated by the solar panels into the alternating current (AC) electricity.

    Electrical Panel

    The AC electricity is sent from the inverter to your electrical panel to power your lights and appliances with solar energy. The electrical panel is often called a breaker box.

    Step 11: Step 3 : Material Required

    I am converting my inverter system in to a solar system. so i already have 900 va inverter.

    1) 150 W solar panels 2 in qty.

    i am using total 300 w of panels because if we calculate the wattage of our battery which is equal to = 12 x 150 = 1800 W

    so we need to generate 1800 W from solar panel in a day to charge our battery to the fullest,

    sunshine hours in our city = 6 Hours

    Wattage of panel required = 1800 / 6 = 300 W

    Now may be you are clear with the formula or the process which i have used here.

    Step 12: Step 4 : Planning for Installation

    Just we need the empty space of 6ft x 6ft to fix the size of the solar panel at that place.

    In this system i am keeping the face of the panels towards south and tilt angle = 25 Deg This because in winter season our panel should produce maximum energy which can charge the battery in a day and i FOCUS to not utilize the energy feed into the grid as i can use the credit units in summer season.

    I have used iron angles to make the structure, may be you can see how to calculate the tilt angle in previous steps.

    The iron L angles are of size 25 mm x 25 mm x 2.5 mm. i have used this size because i am installing panels near to the surface so they do not need much strength.

    From the image you will get a idea of panel structure.

    once the structure is complete i have fastened the structure to the roof and than made a concrete base around the fastened area, which will give more protection and steadiness to the structure.

    Further planning is similar to the planning we have done in ON-Grid system.

    Step 13: Step 5 : Connections

    Once we are done by fixing the panels, now is the time to connect the whole system and make it work.

    In this system as we know we are using 12 v battery so we need to connect the panels in parallel connection so that we can receive 12 v and an increased amp.

    Series connectionIn series connection suppose there are six panels so we will connect the VE terminal of 1St panel to the. VE terminal of the second panel similarly the Ve terminal of second panel is connected to the.VE terminal of 3rd panel similarly it goes like that, In series connection the voltage are added Example if we have 1 panel of 24 v and if we connect the 6 panels in series than we will get the output voltage equals to 144volts and the ampere will remain same. so in On-Grid system we will connect the panels in series connection which is required as we receive the higher voltage by the Grid tie inverter.

    parallel connection

    In parallel connection suppose there are 2 solar panels of 12 v each and we connect the VE terminal of first panel with the VE terminal of second panel and similar for.VE terminal as well, The output we get is of 12 Volt only but the ampere will increase, If single panel produces 4 Amp that in paraller connection we get the output of 12V 8 Amp

    After connecting two panels in parallel we will pass the wire from the conduit and take it near to the interface system.

    where we will connect them according to the polarity mentioned on the interface, now we will connect the red wire coming from the interface with Ve terminal of the battery and black wire from. Ve terminal of the battery,

    Now comes the inverter, inverter has 3 wires with color coding and that same coding is there in the interface so we will match it accordingly and fix it.

    Last step is to connect the interface to the mains, as we know that there are 3 wires connection in single phase which are,,1) Phase. 2) Neutral 3) Earthing.

    So we need to find the ground wire and than connect the earth wire to it. than neutral wire and in last the phase wire That’s it we are done with the connections and now is the time to switch it on.

    Step 14: Conclusion

    Hope you like the project. i am really happy to share this project with you all and i request you to move yourself towards sustainable energy to grow the humanity.

    My vision is to grow the humanity with green energy, so i am also working for my country and the people,who are living in dark and providing them the energy efficient solution totally based on renewable energy.

    May you also help such people and connect them to a better world ,Because doing our own work is great but working for others gives you immense pleasure.

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    Комментарии и мнения владельцев

    Hi Utkarsh, Although I have my mini off grid solar system, I enjoyed reading your post and congratulations on a very elaborate explanation of both systems. Keep up the good work.

    I am currently working on a trial to see if I can use the sukam charge controller shown in your post and modify it in some way to directly give me a regulated 12 volt output when connected to a solar panel (without any batteries).

    Can you please explain what is the difference between a grid tie inverter and an off grid inverter is m

    Hi can you post/email a simple diagram showing the system connections. Also please can you tell me if I have a 36v grid tie inverter, do the connections changw

    Wow! Very nice write up! Did you ever build the lithium ion battery wall yet? Thank you for this!

    How to Solar Power Your Home

    This article was co-authored by Guy Gabay. Guy Gabay is a Solar Energy Contractor and the CEO of AmeriGreen Builders, a full-service solar energy, roofing, HVAC and window installation company based in the greater Los Angeles, California region. With over eight years of experience in the construction industry, Guy leads the AmeriGreen team focusing on bringing an educational approach to energy efficient home upgrades. Guy holds a B.S. in Marketing from California State University. Northridge.

    There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

    wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 93% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

    This article has been viewed 155,232 times.

    Making the switch to solar power is an exciting change that can provide you with lots of savings on your energy bills over the years, not to mention reduce your carbon footprint. We can help you navigate all the steps to choose and install the perfect system for your home.

    Planning Your Solar System

    Read your past year’s utility bills to estimate your annual electricity needs. [1] X Expert Source

    • Keep in mind that your bills have other fixed charges like delivery fees from your utility company. You’ll still have to pay these types of fees after you switch to solar power.
    • Your solar system installer will use this information to help determine what size of solar electric system to install, so keep it handy as you go through the process of switching to solar power.

    See if you have 100 sq ft (9.3 m 2 ) of roof for every kilowatt of energy needed. Measure your open roof space and make sure you have enough area for all the solar panels you’ll be installing. About 4 solar panels will generate 1 kilowatt of solar energy and take up 100 sq ft (9.3 m 2 ) of space. [4] X Research source

      Remember that these areas of the roof will have to be exposed to the sun, and probably won’t be as effective if they’re shaded by trees most of the day. [5] X Expert Source

    • Net metering means that the utility company will pay you or give you credit for any unused solar power your system generates and gives back to the power grid.
    • In the USA, for example, the federal government offers a tax credit equal to about 20-30% of the cost of your solar system. State governments may also provide state tax benefits.
    • You can use the information to help you determine whether you want to buy or lease your solar system, since many incentives only apply to homeowners who actually own the solar system.

    Hiring a Solar Installer

    • There are online databases of solar contractors that you can search for. For example, if you live in California, look up the “California Solar Initiative Database.”
    • In North America, the standard industry certification for solar contractors is from the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners.
    • Make sure each installer you speak to is giving you an estimate for a system that is the same size. For example, ask the companies to provide you with an estimated cost per kilowatt.
    • Bids should include the entire cost of everything needed to get your system up and running, such as hardware, labor, connecting to the grid, permits, and sales taxes.
    • Feel free to ask contractors you’re considering for references of other clients in the area that you can talk to to help you decide on an installer.
    • Additional things you can ask contractors to help you choose one are what warranties they offer, how familiar they are with the permitting process, and how many installations they’ve completed in your area.
    • If every company you spoke to seems equally as good, you can just base your decision on who gave you the best bid.

    Acquiring Your Solar Electric System

    Buy the solar system to get the best benefits if you can afford or finance it. Purchasing a solar system is the best way to maximize the financial benefits because things like tax credits normally only apply to homeowners who own their solar systems. Choose to buy if you have the cash to pay for the system outright or if you are able to finance it or get a loan through your bank. [10] X Trustworthy Source U.S. Department of Energy Official site for the U.S. Department of Energy, which provides resources related to energy safety, conservation, and efficiency Go to source

    • A solar system includes the solar panels and other vital electrical components. You can buy it directly from your solar installer as part of a package that includes installation and all other costs.
    • Make sure you check both the lifetime and the product/materials warranty before you settle on a solar system. [11] X Expert Source
    • Keep in mind that leasing a solar power system means you won’t be eligible for tax benefits.
    • It’s important to note that solar lease contracts are usually for about 20 years. After that, you can usually buy the system for a discounted price.
    • A solar lease can cost from 50-250 a month, depending on the size of the system and your location.
    • A benefit of leasing a system is that you aren’t responsible for repairs or maintenance. The company you lease it from will take care of all of that.
    • Solar system leases are offered by many solar installers. Alternatively, your installer might work with a larger leasing company to acquire the equipment.
    • Like leasing a solar system, you will not be responsible for the maintenance and repairs of the system when you sign a PPA.
    • Signing a PPA is another option when you can’t afford to buy a solar system. However, unlike leasing, you won’t have the option to buy the system at the end of your contract.
    • The average cost per kWh of electricity purchased through a PPA in the USA is 0.11, compared to 0.15 that you would pay per kWh through a utility company. Note that this varies by area and PPAs are not allowed everywhere.

    Completing the Installation

    • It’s possible to install solar electric systems in rented homes as well if you get permission from your landlord. However, this probably wouldn’t make a lot of sense unless you plan on renting the home for the next decade or two.
    • This often involves someone from your local city or area council coming to perform an onsite inspection of your home.
    • Make sure you read the contract thoroughly and fully understand all the terms, including monthly fees for things like delivery and administration that you’ll still have to pay.
    • Make sure you get all the solar system documentation from your contractor, including warranty and maintenance agreement information.

    Community QA

    I have a method 2 system. How do I connect it to the grid to take advantage of the extra production for a power company pay check after my batteries are charged?

    Thanks! We’re glad this was helpful. Thank you for your feedback. As a small thank you, we’d like to offer you a 30 gift card (valid at GoNift.com). Use it to try out great new products and services nationwide without paying full price—wine, food delivery, clothing and more. Enjoy! Claim Your Gift If wikiHow has helped you, please consider a small contribution to support us in helping more readers like you. We’re committed to providing the world with free how-to resources, and even 1 helps us in our mission. Support wikiHow

    This just means the electricity is clean and has extremely little or no disturbances in its frequency. Very similar to tuning in a radio station, think of the non-stations or static between radio stations as non-sine or dirty electricity.

    Thanks! We’re glad this was helpful. Thank you for your feedback. As a small thank you, we’d like to offer you a 30 gift card (valid at GoNift.com). Use it to try out great new products and services nationwide without paying full price—wine, food delivery, clothing and more. Enjoy! Claim Your Gift If wikiHow has helped you, please consider a small contribution to support us in helping more readers like you. We’re committed to providing the world with free how-to resources, and even 1 helps us in our mission. Support wikiHow

    The cost of setting up a solar home varies depending on the needs of the family and what it’s going to be powering. You will need to figure the amount of time certain things will be used as well. You will also need several deep cell batteries on which power can be stored and drawn upon. You do not want to run the batteries more than 50% of their capacity; more than 50% will shorten the life of the battery. The other expense that must be calculated is the power inverter(s). There are two different types, and you need to figure out if you will need the pure sine wave or not. Sensitive items (i.e. PC’s, Tablets, etc.) need the pure sine wave to avoid damaging the components.

    Thanks! We’re glad this was helpful. Thank you for your feedback. As a small thank you, we’d like to offer you a 30 gift card (valid at GoNift.com). Use it to try out great new products and services nationwide without paying full price—wine, food delivery, clothing and more. Enjoy! Claim Your Gift If wikiHow has helped you, please consider a small contribution to support us in helping more readers like you. We’re committed to providing the world with free how-to resources, and even 1 helps us in our mission. Support wikiHow

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