BOS HS Business 5 3kVA
BOS HS Business solutions are all in one box solutions, which can be easily deployed as against traditional way of building onsite. The HS solutions are pre-configured, pre-assembled standalone hybrid solar power systems.
From the significant components down to the most minor element, standalone solar systems require many parts combined to work in harmony for a system to work correctly. The HS takes care of all detailed system design, component procurement, equipment assembly, equipment programming and unit testing before dispatch to the customer.
Building an off grid solar system onsite can make sense for some applications. In many cases, an off-grid system or a hybrid solar system is required in hard-to-reach locations where there may not be accessible to experienced, fully qualified designers and installers who know the necessary to complete an installation competently. Access to appropriate skills, tools, components, and equipment can be difficult to source and integrate into a system when you are many hours away from home base. Forget a critical component or a component is faulty; another trip will be required back to the site.
Benefits of Pre-assembled solutions
The HS Business is not just well known and used for its all in one box design, it also combines creativity with energy.
- Pre-sales design support
- Organized technical documentation
- Detailed electrical design
- Circuit breakers sized
- Thermal Management for better component life
- Pre-Labelled as per safety standards
- Pre-tested before dispatch
- No specific product knowledge required for installation
- No range of specific tool needed for commissioning
- No spares required at the commissioning
- Installation and OM guide
System Voltage: 48 VDC
Battery: LiFePO4 Lithium
Weight: 100 kg
FIMER REACT2 Single Phase Hybrid Inverter
Label Kit AC Battery
BOS HS Business 10 5kVA
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Reviews and information on the best Solar panels, inverters and batteries from SMA, Fronius, SunPower, SolaX, Q Cells, Trina, Jinko, Selectronic, Tesla Powerwall, ABB. Plus hybrid inverters, battery sizing, Lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries, off-grid and on-grid power systems.
February 10, 2023 Jason Svarc
This is a guide only. For less technical information see the basic guide to selecting a home grid-tie or off-grid solar battery system. Solar and battery storage systems must be installed by an experienced licensed electrical professional. Solar and Energy storage systems generate and store huge amounts of energy which can result in damage, fire or serious injury if the installation does not meet all relevant regulations, standards guidelines.
Four Basic Steps to Designing Battery storage or off-Grid Solar systems
Before selecting or purchasing any equipment required for a hybrid or stand-alone power system, the installer should understand the basics of sizing energy storage systems. The most important part of the process is developing the load profile or building a load table to estimate the amount of energy required to be generated and stored per day. If you cannot develop a load table, a professional solar installer or system designer should be consulted.
- Estimate the loads. first, determine how much energy is required per day in kWh. For off-grid power systems, a load table should be developed for both summer and winter requirements. The surge loads, power factors, and maximum or peak demand must also be considered when selecting the battery and inverter-charger.
- Determine the battery size required in Ah or Wh. To ensure accuracy, you need to consider the battery type and chemistry, maximum depth of discharge (DoD), round-trip efficiency, days of autonomy, and maximum charge rate.
- Determine the solar array size in kW. A correctly sized solar array is required to charge the battery and supply the loads, taking into account local conditions, including; average solar irradiance throughout the year (peak sun hours), any shading issues, panel orientation, cable losses, and temperature derating (loss factors).
- After steps 1 to 3 have been established, you can select the appropriate size inverter-charger, solar inverter or MPPT Solar Charge Controller to suit the system.
How to select a hybrid or off-grid inverter
Modern hybrid off-grid energy storage systems have many specifications to consider before selecting and sizing an appropriate battery inverter-charger. There are now many different system types available, including grid-interactive inverter-chargers, hybrid inverters, complete systems with integrated battery storage (BESS) and AC-coupled battery systems. Here we help explain some of the key requirements which should be considered.
- Inverter power output. continuous and surge rating (kW)
- Inverter charge rating (A)
- Solar PV array size (kW)
- Pass through power (A)
- Battery compatibility. System voltage and battery type
- Configuration. AC or DC coupled
- Software and energy management
Inverter Power ratings
Below are two main types of hybrid or off-grid inverters, available in various sizes with different continuous and peak power ratings, measured in kW or kVA.
- Off-grid battery inverter-chargers with heavy-duty transformers are more expensive but provide high surge and peak power output and can handle high inductive loads. Many of these inverters-chargers are also grid-interactive, as explained in more detail below.
- Hybrid inverters and AC-coupled battery systems use transformer-less inverters with ‘switching transistors’. These compact lightweight inverters have lower surge and peak power output ratings but are more cost-effective, being cheaper and easier to manufacture.
Continuous Power Output
Most battery inverters (hybrid or Inverter-charger) are available in a wide range of sizes determined by the continuous output power rating measured in kW or kVA
The inverter should be matched (sized) slightly higher than the load or power demand of the appliances it will be powering. Due to temperature de-rating in hot environments, the inverter should be at least 1.2 times larger than the highest continuous summer demand. Depending on the application, this is often the most important specification to be considered when selecting a hybrid inverter, especially when using a hybrid inverter as a backup power source for dedicated or essential loads. Whether the loads are inductive or resistive is also very important and must be taken into account.
Inverter sizing in kW or kVA
Something to be aware of is whether the inverter power output is listed in kW or kVA. Kilowatts is generally the more accurate rating. This can be a little confusing when sizing an inverter for your needs. The general conversion ratio used for kVA to kW is shown below:
kVA x 0.8 = kW
For example, a 5kVA inverter roughly equates to a 4kW inverter power rating. Another example is a 3000VA (3kVA) continuous power output inverter generally only outputs 2400 Watts continuously, so approximately 80% of the ‘apparent’ power rating.
Off-grid inverter sizing
For off-grid installations, the inverter sizing is critical and must be sized to meet the full load (demand) under all conditions. As mentioned, temperature derating is especially important as the inverter output is derated (reduced) at higher ambient temperatures. For example, a 6kW inverter that is rated and 25°C may only output a continuous power of 4.8kW at 40°C. This derating factor must be taken into account, especially in warmer climates.
Surge or Peak Power Output
The surge or peak power rating is very important for off-grid systems but not always critical for a hybrid (grid-tie) system. If you plan on powering high surge appliances such as water pumps, compressors, washing machines and power tools, the inverter must be able to handle the high inductive surge loads.
The amount of time the inverter can maintain the surge power output is also very important, but can be misleading depending on how it is described by the manufacturer. For example, some inverters may specify the surge output of say 8kW, while others may specify 8kW for 60 seconds. When a surge time (in seconds) is not specified, the surge rating may only be sustained for 1 or 2 seconds. Generally, the high-end grid-interactive inverter-chargers have the highest surge ratings for the longest amount of time. The Selectronic SP PRO is known to have one of the highest surge ratings of any battery inverter-charger on the market.
Backup Power. Continuous
As the chart above highlights, many hybrid inverters have reduced or limited backup power when operating in backup or emergency supply mode (EPS). Depending on the battery used, this can be further limited by the battery capacity and output power rating. However, there are several hybrid inverters (Solax, Redback SolarEdge) that do not have reduced power output in backup mode. The dedicated battery inverter-chargers such as the Selectronic SP PRO and Victron Multiplus do not have any such limitations.
Inverter Charge rating
The battery inverter max charge rating, measured in Amps, needs to be considered to ensure the battery bank capacity and inverter are ‘balanced’ correctly. Ie. ensure the inverter-charger has enough charging capacity to enable the battery to reach the absorption charge voltage. If the battery bank is too large and the inverter charge rating is too small the battery with not achieve a full charge cycle. This will result in poor performance, degradation and possible sulfation (if lead-acid batteries are used).
Many modern lithium battery systems can accept a high charge current to capacity ratio and are able to be charged at a higher C rate. If a large or oversized solar array is used and the inverter charge rate is not adequate then the solar generation may be clipped (reduced) and the system will not perform as efficiently.
Solar Array Sizing Guide
Once you have established the average daily energy consumption (kWh), and taken into account the local solar irradiation and losses, the next step is to determine the solar array size in kW. The battery capacity (kWh) should also be considered for off-grid systems when sizing the solar array. This is not straightforward, as there many variables to consider.
A basic guide is to use the minimum peak sun hours (PSH) in your location. The winter PSH value is typically used to ensure the solar array is large enough to fully charge the battery bank during the shortest sunny day. For example, if you had a 16kWh battery, you want to generate at least 18kWh during the shortest day, taking into account losses and other loads. You can use the Photonik solar design tool to determine how many kWh a solar array will produce throughout the year based on the local PSH, orientation and array tilt angle. Due to the relatively low cost of solar panels, oversizing the solar array is a common practice to ensure the battery is charged even during poor or intermittent weather. In off-grid systems, oversizing will help reduce generator runtime.
MPPT String Voltage
Accurately calculating the string voltages is critical when designing a solar array using string solar inverters or MPPT solar charge controllers. Solar systems must operate under a wide variety of weather conditions and climates, and the ambient temperature significantly affects the string voltage, which in turn impacts the system’s performance, safety and reliability. You can use our free String Voltage Calculator to quickly determine the string voltage using the historical temperature data for your location.
Hybrid inverters have integrated MPPTs with string input voltage and current limits that may limit the solar array size, which can be used (usually around 6-8kW single-phase). In comparison, grid-interactive battery inverter-chargers such as the Selectronic SP PRO and Victron Multiplus can work with either solar inverters or MPPT solar charge controllers in both AC or DC-coupled configurations. These systems can accommodate much larger solar arrays, which can be expanded at a later stage if required.
AC-Coupled PV sizing
In AC-coupled systems, the solar inverter size is often limited by the inverter-charger power rating (kW). For example, the Victron Multiplus and Quattro inverter-chargers can only be AC-coupled with an inverter ratio of 1:1, meaning the solar inverter (AC) power rating must be the same as the inverter-charger AC power rating. I.e. a 5kW solar inverter is the largest size which can be AC-coupled with a 5kW Multiplus inverter-charger. Note, more solar can be added using DC-coupling with a Victron system. Learn more about the Victron AC-coupling factor 1 rule. In comparison, the Selectronic SP PRO inverter ratio is 1:2, meaning it can have double the solar inverter AC capacity connected. For example, a 5kW SP PRO can be AC-coupled with 2 x 5kW Fronius solar inverters or one large 8.2kW Fronius inverter.
NOTE: When designing a ‘managed’ AC-coupled off-grid system, the solar inverter will need to be compatible with the inverter charger. For example, Selectronic certified or ‘Scert’ inverters are modified to enable precision battery charge control using direct communication. In comparison, Victron and SMA AC coupled off-grid systems generally use frequency shifting. This is adequate but not as precise and can affect some sensitive electronic appliances.
DC-Coupled PV sizing
Unlike AC-coupled solar, DC-coupling does not have the same size limitations and the solar array can be greatly oversized to allow for poor weather conditions and changes in seasonal solar irradiance. DC-coupling solar using MPPT solar charge controllers is a very efficient and reliable way of adding solar and has many advantages over AC coupling explained in more detail below. See our detailed article, MPPT solar charge controllers explained for more information about selecting and sizing DC-coupled solar charge controllers.
Inverter Pass-Through Power
The pass-through power feature (also referred to as an ‘integrated transfer switch’) enables the inverter to supply additional power from the grid or backup generator under high loads, when the batteries are low or when solar energy is not available. The ability to pass through additional power from the grid (or generator in an off-grid system) can greatly simplify the installation by not requiring the separation of essential and non-essential loads.
Generally, only high-end grid-interactive inverter-chargers can pass through additional power from the grid or auto start and run a connected backup generator. Selectronic, Victron Energy and Schneider electric inverter chargers all feature inbuilt transfer switches with pass-through power capability. SMA Sunny Island systems require an external contactor to be installed when grid-connected.
Compatible Battery Types
Before the release of affordable lithium battery systems, most battery inverters were designed to operate with the widely available lead-acid batteries (Gel, AGM flooded). Lead-acid batteries are larger, and heavier and can emit gases that require ventilation. In contrast, lithium-ion batteries are lighter, compact, more efficient, and safe to store inside a sealed enclosure. Many lithium battery systems, such as those from BYD, Pylontech and LG energy, have integrated battery management units (BMU), requiring an inverter with compatible communications (CANbus network protocol) to operate safely and efficiently.
Several self-managed lithium LFP battery systems do not require BMS communications to the inverter and will function much like a lead-acid battery system; these include Simpliphi PHI, Powerplus Energy, GenZ LFP, and Zenaji LTO battery systems.
For off-grid systems, lead-acid batteries are still a well-proven and reliable technology with a lifespan of up to 15 years when sized and managed correctly. One of the biggest benefits of lead-acid batteries is that, unlike modern lithium batteries, they will not shut down at a low voltage or low SOC. This is important in emergency situations or when a backup generator fails or is not available.
All hybrid and off-grid inverters are designed to use a specific nominal DC battery voltage, the most common being 48V. Since most lithium battery systems are 48V, this is not a problem. However, many small-capacity inverters use 12V or 24V, so these may only be compatible with lead-acid battery banks of the same voltage. Selectronic, SMA and Schneider have a range of high-end 48V hybrid/off-grid inverters, while Victron Energy and Outback Power supply both dedicated 12V, 24V 48V off-grid inverters.
The first Tesla Powerwall was the first battery system to operate at high voltage (HV) and was connected in line with the solar array, which operates at a similar voltage (200-500V). HV systems are now very common, and many hybrid inverters such as the SolarEdge StorEdge, Goodwe EH and Fronius GEN24 Plus all work with high-voltage battery systems.
Note: Unlike the DC-coupled MPPT solar charge controllers or regulators, hybrid inverters cannot work with multiple battery voltages.
Battery Capacity. KWh
Battery capacity is measured in kWh (kilowatt/hours), or Amp-hours (lead-acid) is the total amount of energy a battery system can store. However, depending on the battery type and specifications, not all of the available capacity is usable. Common Lead-acid deep-cycle batteries (AGM Gel) should only be discharged to 20-35% of total capacity on a daily basis, whereas Lithium-ion and new-generation battery technologies can be discharged to 80-90% SOC. Therefore the battery chemistry and capacity need to be carefully selected to cater to the user’s energy requirements.
Hybrid Vs Off-grid. For a typical grid-connected home with peak (evening) energy use of 8-10kWh from 5 pm until midnight, roughly a 12-15 kWh lithium battery would be sufficient. However, for off-grid systems, the battery system will need to store enough energy for several consecutive days of bad weather. With an average (efficient) home using 10-15 kWh over a whole day, this will require a much larger, more expensive 30-60 kWh battery system, depending on the days of autonomy required and the size of the solar array.
Hybrid Example: If peak energy use (from 6-12 pm) was 6kWh, the system would require roughly 14-16kWh lead-acid battery or a 7-8kWh lithium battery system to cover peak energy consumption adequately.
configuration. AC or DC-coupled
As solar battery systems became larger and more advanced, AC-coupled systems evolved as one of the best configurations due to the use of low-cost, easy-to-install string solar inverters. Most modern off-grid AC-coupled systems use advanced bi-directional inverter-chargers coupled with one or more compatible solar inverters. AC-coupled systems are generally more efficient during the day when there is high AC power demand, such as air-conditioning systems, modern kitchen appliances and pool pumps. However, the new generation high voltage DC-coupled battery systems (HV) are becoming more popular with the growing range of advanced HV hybrid inverters on the market.
For more information, see the detailed AC vs DC-coupled system article.
Software and Energy Management
A high level of power management and system monitoring is required to enable hybrid or off-grid power systems to optimise energy use and prolong battery life. The software used to run hybrid and off-grid systems thus require advanced energy management and monitoring capabilities, and this is where the high-end grid-interactive inverters shine. These powerful inverters, such as those from Victron Energy, Selectronic, Schneider and SMA, have the most advanced software packages with built-in control systems, relays and digital inputs and outputs. These systems also incorporate specialised battery monitoring and temperature sensors to prolong battery life and optimise charging with lead-acid or VRLA battery banks.
Third-party system monitoring
For additional monitoring and control, third-party add-on energy monitoring systems like Reposit Power and Solar Analytics can provide more advanced remote monitoring and intelligent control features.
Two popular add-on remote monitoring and energy management systems
Most hybrid systems with built-in battery storage (BESS systems) also utilise advanced energy management systems and sensors however, some of the low cost all-in-one hybrid inverters have limited capabilities which can result in less efficient use of stored energy.
Virtual Power Plants and Distributed Energy Resources
Larger scale micro-grids and virtual power plants, or VPP’s, require unique technology designed to integrate and manage distributed energy resources (DERs). Switchdin has emerged as one of the leaders in this space with the Droplet controllers allowing integration and control of DERs.
Hybrid off-grid inverter comparison charts
See our detailed inverter comparison charts:
iwin Hybrid Solar Inverter 3KVA/48V
iwin Hybrid Inverter 5kva/48V has a rating power of 3000W.
Solar Charge Controller: PWM 10-20A MPPT: 10-100A
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What can a 3kw solar system run?
A 3kW solar panel system can run most appliances found in a small home with 2 – 3 occupants.
It can produce up to 2500kWh per year which should be enough to run all the typical appliances you would find in 1 bath, 2 bedroom home.
There are 3 ways to work out if a 3kW system is right for you.
Hard way: Look at the appliances you have a what a 3kW system can power on average.
The easy way: Take your monthly power bill and look at the kWs’ of power consumed. If it is around 200kWh then this is a good size system for you.
Any more and you will need to consider a larger system.
Appliances a 3kw system can run
Here’s an idea of what appliances you can run on a 3kWh Solar System.
Note: All consumption values refer to the yearly average consumption for those appliances.
A 3KW Solar System that can produce 12kWh a day / 2,500kWh a year on average will be able to annul a considerable part of your appliance’s consumption, lowering your energy bill.
Another ideal way to determine how much a certain appliance consumes includes using a power monitor that will tell you exactly how much you’re spending in real-time. They are cheap and widely available.
How many panels will I need for a 3kw system?
The average solar panel is 37W, so to make up a 3kW system (3,000w) we will need to install 8 panels. 12 x 375W = 3kW
3kW solar system = 8 Panels or 14m2
Each panel is on average 170cm x 100cm, which is 1.7m2 per panel. This means you will need about 13.6m2 of available roof space facing north to make a 3kW system available.
You should consider getting an installer to look at your roof size and orientations to see if this will fit.
With today’s technology, your local solar installer can use Google maps to see your roof size and orientation. There will be no need for a site visit.
What to consider
Panels should be installed by a professional to ensure all safety concerns a minimalized and optimal angle for solar energy production is achieved.Also, consider that no matter how much electrical power a 3 kWh solar system produces, the energy it produces should be used in real-time to ensure its effectiveness. Any energy that is not used while the Solar Panels are producing energy will either go to waste or will be injected into the electrical grid.
To minimize loss of power, ensure to speak to your power company about how much they will pay you for energy produced, and whether getting a solar battery is right for you.
How much will a 3kw solar system produce?
If you have ideal sunlight conditions, that means that 12 x 250w Solar Panels can produce 12kWh a day on average.
What’s the average cost of a 3kw system?
The cost of solar panel installation will depend on the state you live in (size of government rebate) and the quality of the system you intend to install.
A 3KW Solar System installed will cost on average 4,064. Below are the averages by the state for a 3kW system.
How long until a 3kW pays for itself?
Your 3KW Solar System is expected to pay for itself in as little as 3 years, though it will depend on how much energy you can actually produce and use.
Another consideration is how much of that energy is used in a Smart way. Are you running washing machines and hot water heaters at noon when your system is producing most of its power?
Are you storing the energy for later use or are you getting a feed-in tariff from your energy supplier?
All these variables will influence how long it will take for your panels to pay for themselves and will differ from person to person, from household to household.
As mentioned before, Battery Backup Systems can be purchased to ensure you use the produced energy when there is no sunlight, but their elevated cost still doesn’t provide an effective return and is very often not advised for regular home usage. This is expected to change as solar battery fall over the next 3 – 5 years but at this stage, they are too expensive.
The 3kW solar system is an ideal choice for small and medium-size houses with a pool. 3KW solar system can generate energy up to 3000 watts, reasonable to run a 3KW inverter. The installment of 3 kW will create enough capacity to cover an enormous segment of the necessities of most houses. It can run lights, fans, refrigerator, microwave, toasters, TV, washer and most or all of the dailyelectricity needs of a home with 2-3 occupants.
Generally, the 3kW solar system produces 12 kWh of usable power on average every day throughout the year. Since it is often delivering more energy at any given time during the day than a home can consume, the 3kW framework can export 6 kWh of power to the grid
Since it’s on the smaller side of the scale as far as size and capacity is concerned, a 3kW solar system is one of the less expensive choices you can avail. The real cost relies upon various variables; however, the average cost of a 3kW solar system in Australia is 4,064.
The battery stores abundant power created from solar system panels during the day so that it can be used during the night. Various other elements decide how much energy is being used at a given time and how your battery will act over the long period of usage. If your requirement is 12kW during an entire day, you will need a battery that can store at lead 10kWh of energy for use when the sun is notshining. The energy stored will cover you for 24 hours.
The general aim when planning an off-grid battery is to get a system that is sufficiently large to supply every one of your requirements for a couple of overcast days, but at the same time, it can easily be charged by your solar panels. The battery limit is estimated in Amp Hours. You have to change this to Watt Hours. The basic computation is given underneath
X (Battery size in AH) x Y (Battery Voltage) = Z (Power accessible in watt-hours for a 20AH, 12V battery the Watt Hours figure is 20(X) x 12(Y) = 240 WH (Z)
Deciding what number of solar panels you need for your home requirements depends upon your aims. Try to figure out how much energy your family utilizes; your rooftop’s usable surface area, the atmosphere, and maximum daylight in your general vicinity and the wattage and relative productivity of the photovoltaic (PV) panels you’re thinking about. You can figure what number of solar panels you need by checking your family’s hourly energy needs by the maximum daylight hours for your region and separating that by a panel’s wattage. You are best speaking with a local solar installer to see which system will best suit you, but the most popular system is the 5kW system which has 16 panels and costs about 4,990.
Your solar panels will fulfill your energy needs for a long time. As a general solar energy industry guideline, solar panels last around 25-30 years. Solar panels are ordinarily warranted for 25 years, so you can anticipate that they should keep going at any rate that long. In many cases, studies have indicated that solar panels keep on working at diminished productivity long after the guarantee terminates.
The average energy consumption by a house hold in Australia is 17kWh. This does vary depending on the size of the home and whether it is in summer/ winter or Autumn/ spring. Usage seems to max out in summer and winter with 20kWh with the other seasons averaging about 15kWh.
It depends on what extent of sunlight you get during a day in your general vicinity. If you get 6 hours a day then,
That infers you can make 2400 WH of energy consistently with the end goal for you to get 3000 watts, you would require something like 2 full-sized batteries intended for enormous vehicles.
Author: Ben McInerney is a renewable energy enthusiast with the goal of helping more Australians understand solar systems to make the best choice before they purchase. Having an accredited solar installer in the family helps give Ben access to the correct information, which allows him to break it down and make it easily understandable to the average homeowner.