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An Informative Guide on Mono Perc Solar Panels: Price, Pros, and Cons. Perc pv module

An Informative Guide on Mono Perc Solar Panels: Price, Pros, and Cons. Perc pv module

    What is PERC? Why should you care?

    There has been a lot of buzz about PERC solar cell technology, especially over the past year, with manufacturers large and small touting it. It has piqued the interest of many in the industry, but basic information surrounding the advanced technology has not been widely available. Here are the basics on PERC and what can be expected down the road for this technology.

    Depending on which source is consulted, PERC stands for Passivated Emitter Rear Cell, Passivated Emitter Rear Contact or even Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell. First developed in Australia in the 1980s by scientist Martin Green and his team at University of New South Wales, PERC technology adds an extra layer to the rear-side of a solar cell. Manufacturers spent many years focusing on the front side of a solar cell, and less attention was paid to taking advantage of production opportunities from the backside. Incorporating PERC into a solar cell boosts generation.

    In order to create a PERC cell, an additional two steps are employed to the standard back surface field (BSF) during the manufacturing process. First, a rear surface passivation film is applied. Second, lasers or chemicals are used to open the rear passivation stack and create tiny s in the film to absorb more light. Manufacturers can approach this in different ways (i.e. varying the recipe for the film and opening technique), but in every instance a dielectric passivation layer is added to the back of the cell.

    In employing just two additional steps, the return is threefold: 1.) Electron recombination is significantly reduced; 2.) light is absorbed; and 3.) Higher internal reflectivity is experienced. Not all sunlight is absorbed through non-PERC solar cells (some light passes straight through). But with a passivation layer on the rear side of a PERC cell, unabsorbed light is reflected by the additional layer back to the solar cell for a second absorption attempt. This process leads to a more efficient solar cell. This is great news for those across the spectrum of the industry.

    Why do solar cell and panel manufacturers care?

    The investment to move to a PERC technology line requires minimal modifications to existing cell manufacturing lines. Manufacturers can easily make the jump to produce a superior product without having to outlay large capital expenditures for a complete overhaul of existing equipment. There has been a boom in adding PERC capacity to the global market and it is set to continue at a Rapid pace for the next several years. Additionally, panel manufacturers are now able to produce a more energy dense module without much of an increase in build cost.

    Why do developers, designers and installers care?

    A SolarTech Universal solar panel

    Panels incorporating PERC technology give more freedom to developers and designers, especially when dealing with unorthodox spaces or locations that were once thought to be less than desirable for solar. PERC panels have a higher energy density per square foot and perform well under low-light conditions and high temperatures. When considering total energy production rather than peak wattage, it is clear PERC panels are superior. Designers can utilize fewer panels to accomplish total output goals where footprint is limited, or they can dramatically maximize energy output if space is not a premium. It empowers designers to be more flexible and responsive to project objectives.

    This freedom also allows the option to drive down BOS costs. is being achieved with less, which can trickle down to significantly reduced soft costs. This can be the difference between a client having sticker shock and not moving forward with project to one seeing a cost-effective and manageable system. Additionally, more attractive temperature coefficients make PERC a top performer in hotter climates, and less thermal loss is experienced. This allows end users to achieve superior performance from their systems throughout the year.

    Why do financiers care?

    Being that PERC technology is neither new or radically different from standard cells, there is reduced risk on the financier’s side of the table to back an advanced technology. By utilizing a proven technology and modifying the standard cell, there is no change in the inherent risk of the module and its performance. Financiers should warm to the idea of panels manufactured with PERC technology. It sets a course for establishing dependable, long-term power output in a cost-effective manner for residential, commercial and utility projects. Total power generation over the lifetime of the solar system is increased without dramatically boosting the cost per watt.

    informative, guide, mono, perc, solar, panels

    What’s the future of solar cells?

    Cell manufacturers were busy in 2015 expanding capacities to accommodate PERC demand from module manufacturers, and these trends have continued into 2016. PERC will be a mainstay for several years primarily because it does not require complete operation overhauls by current cell manufacturers.

    There are other silicon cell types on the horizon set to propel panels into the next generation. One that has already been commercialized and is being utilized by U.S.-based PV module manufacturer SolarTech Universal is the heterojunction (HJT) bi-facial cell. The HJT cell fuses the best attributes from mono crystalline silicon cells (superior absorption) and amorphous silicon cells (excellent passivation) for a specialized cell that is immune to PID and LID. SolarTech Universal’s panels incorporating HJT cells achieve 300 watts on the front side.

    About The Author

    Kelly Pickerel

    Kelly Pickerel has over a decade of experience reporting on the U.S. solar industry and is currently editor in chief of Solar Power World.

    Комментарии и мнения владельцев

    can PERC have better thermal stability compared with standard solar cells? and also can we measure the efficiency of energy conversion of the proposed solar cell model with PERC

    Could you tell me your opinion on perovskites and how (or if) you believe it will ever take the place of silicon?

    If perovskites SC has a better lifetime performance, and can be fabricated when exposed to air, it could be used in some flexible but small places in the future, due to the cheap materials superior increasing efficiency.

    Real and honest numbers? What is the realistic power gain / perfomance gain (there is a difference!) The advantage from the reflected light shall be dependent from the cell thickness which is around 160-180 microns. What I learned, the absobtion of most of the light is at ~40 microns depth.

    I know SolarWorld Americas has PERC technology, as well as a new Bifacial module available for sale….

    informative, guide, mono, perc, solar, panels

    Hi John, Nearly every panel manufacturer now has a PERC line. They’re usually pretty vocal about including the technology in their newer modules.

    An Informative Guide on Mono Perc Solar Panels: Price, Pros, and Cons

    Paving the way for a dramatic increase in the efficiency of photovoltaic systems, mono perc solar panels are gaining popularity in recent times.

    The technology behind a mono perc solar panel is an ideal combination of rear wafer surface passivation and local rear contacts, maximising light capture.

    These panels meet the needs of commercial and utility customers, helping solar power systems of all sizes unlock value and accelerate energy production.

    The upcoming sections will provide insights into the working of a mono perc solar panel, mono perc solar panel price, the pros and cons of purchasing a mono perc solar panel, and more.

    How does a Mono Perc Solar Panel Work?

    PERC is the abbreviation of Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell. It is a modern technology, largely used to enhance the efficiency of solar modules.

    Adding a passivated layer in the rear of the cell brings about a change in the working of the solar panels.

    In standard modules, the sunlight that falls on the surface is either reflected, passed through the surface, or absorbed. Contrastingly, in the case of a solar panel mono perc, the light passed through the perc solar cell can be used again.

    The passivated layer present on the rear side of the solar panel is capable of reflecting the photons; thereby, increasing the amount of light absorbed by the module. It ensures a higher energy production.

    The Efficiency of a Mono Perc Solar Panel

    A mono perc solar panel is one of the most innovative devices for capturing solar energy. The latest technology in designing these solar panels boosts their energy efficiency between 22% to 25%.

    They are suitable for harnessing energy even in low light or cloudy weather and justify the high capital expenditure. over, fewer numbers of mono perc solar panels can achieve the required energy production.

    The following points elucidate the efficiency of a mono perc solar panel:

    • Exceptional performance under high temperature and low-light conditions.
    • Provides enhanced energy density per square foot than conventional panels.
    • The reflection of unabsorbed light back into the solar cell increases light absorption.
    • The anti-reflective coating further enhances efficiency and captures more light.

    Pros and Cons of Buying A Mono Perc Solar Panel

    The perks of buying a mono perc solar panel outnumber the demerits. However, you must go through both before making a choice.

    Pros

    • Cost-Effective: Although mono perc panel costs are high, the enhanced efficiency justifies the capital expenditure. It also decreases the number of solar panels needed and installation costs.
    • Highly Flexible:Mono perc solar panels come with better flexibility as the extra layers make them better equipped for low-light conditions and high temperatures. They generate power early during the day and continue to perform late till the evening.
    • Minimal Modifications Required: They require minimum modifications from manufacturing to installation.
    • Slow power degradation rate: They degrade much more slowly than traditional modules. Thus, they generate more electricity in their lifespan. They have a sustenance capability of more than 25 years.
    • Higher energy density: Low energy cost with lower payback periods.

    Cons

    • High purchasing cost: The cost of mono perc solar panels is high compared to other traditional solar panels.
    • Performance: The performance can slightly decline due to increasing temperature.

    Mono Perc Solar Panels Price

    The price of mono perc solar panels is high in comparison to mono solar panel price. The following table enumerates the average mono perc solar panel price range.

    The can vary ± 10%.12% based on the brand, location, promotions, and availability.

    Solar Panel Model (Watt) Selling Price Price Per Watt
    165 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 4500.5000 Rs. 27-30
    200 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 5500- 6000 Rs. 28-30
    375 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 10,000-10,500 Rs. 26-28
    400 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 11000-11500 Rs. 27- 28

    Subsidies on Mono Perc Solar Panel

    The government encourages the adoption of renewable solar energy by offering a subsidy on solar panels. It financially supports the installation of solar power systems in residential homes.

    Consumers must note that the solar subsidy is only available on DCR panels for residential use.

    In other words, there’s no subsidy available for mono perc solar panels since these panels are not entirely manufactured in India.

    Maintenance of a Mono Perc Solar Panel

    Consider the following pointers to take good care of your mono perc solar panels:

    • While installing the panels, ensure that you set the right orientation. Install them in shade-free places.
    • Opt for proper periodic cleaning.⁣
    • Adopt measures to prevent overheating during hot sunny days.⁣
    • Use a solar concentrator to maximise the output.
    informative, guide, mono, perc, solar, panels

    Conclusion

    Efficiency is a key parameter to consider when selecting a solar panel.⁣ On average, a mono perc solar panel comes with a 22%-25% efficiency boost promise.

    Opting for a mono perc solar panel is a cost-effective option and these panels take up less space.

    The innumerable benefits that easily compensate for the high purchase cost are the main contributing factors to the skyrocketing popularity of mono perc solar panels.

    FAQs

    Q1. Which one is better: Mono or Mono perc solar panel?

    When taking into consideration the overall energy production and space requirement, mono-perc solar panels are better than standard mono panels.

    Q2. What is a bifacial mono perc solar panel?

    Mono perc bifacial panels are formed by using the perc technology with bifacial modules. Bifacial solar panels have two sides of solar cells collecting light.

    Q3. Are bifacial mono perc solar panels suitable for residential purposes?

    Bifacial solar panels are more suitable for commercial and utility solar developers rather than residential rooftop projects.

    Also, these panels need space behind them so the reflected light can reach the panel. Therefore, it isn’t appropriate to install them on rooftops.

    An Informative Guide on Mono Perc Solar Panels: Price, Pros, and Cons

    Paving the way for a dramatic increase in the efficiency of photovoltaic systems, mono perc solar panels are gaining popularity in recent times.

    The technology behind a mono perc solar panel is an ideal combination of rear wafer surface passivation and local rear contacts, maximising light capture.

    These panels meet the needs of commercial and utility customers, helping solar power systems of all sizes unlock value and accelerate energy production.

    The upcoming sections will provide insights into the working of a mono perc solar panel, mono perc solar panel price, the pros and cons of purchasing a mono perc solar panel, and more.

    How does a Mono Perc Solar Panel Work?

    PERC is the abbreviation of Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell. It is a modern technology, largely used to enhance the efficiency of solar modules.

    Adding a passivated layer in the rear of the cell brings about a change in the working of the solar panels.

    In standard modules, the sunlight that falls on the surface is either reflected, passed through the surface, or absorbed. Contrastingly, in the case of a solar panel mono perc, the light passed through the perc solar cell can be used again.

    The passivated layer present on the rear side of the solar panel is capable of reflecting the photons; thereby, increasing the amount of light absorbed by the module. It ensures a higher energy production.

    The Efficiency of a Mono Perc Solar Panel

    A mono perc solar panel is one of the most innovative devices for capturing solar energy. The latest technology in designing these solar panels boosts their energy efficiency between 22% to 25%.

    They are suitable for harnessing energy even in low light or cloudy weather and justify the high capital expenditure. over, fewer numbers of mono perc solar panels can achieve the required energy production.

    The following points elucidate the efficiency of a mono perc solar panel:

    • Exceptional performance under high temperature and low-light conditions.
    • Provides enhanced energy density per square foot than conventional panels.
    • The reflection of unabsorbed light back into the solar cell increases light absorption.
    • The anti-reflective coating further enhances efficiency and captures more light.

    Pros and Cons of Buying A Mono Perc Solar Panel

    The perks of buying a mono perc solar panel outnumber the demerits. However, you must go through both before making a choice.

    Pros

    • Cost-Effective: Although mono perc panel costs are high, the enhanced efficiency justifies the capital expenditure. It also decreases the number of solar panels needed and installation costs.
    • Highly Flexible:Mono perc solar panels come with better flexibility as the extra layers make them better equipped for low-light conditions and high temperatures. They generate power early during the day and continue to perform late till the evening.
    • Minimal Modifications Required: They require minimum modifications from manufacturing to installation.
    • Slow power degradation rate: They degrade much more slowly than traditional modules. Thus, they generate more electricity in their lifespan. They have a sustenance capability of more than 25 years.
    • Higher energy density: Low energy cost with lower payback periods.

    Cons

    • High purchasing cost: The cost of mono perc solar panels is high compared to other traditional solar panels.
    • Performance: The performance can slightly decline due to increasing temperature.

    Mono Perc Solar Panels Price

    The price of mono perc solar panels is high in comparison to mono solar panel price. The following table enumerates the average mono perc solar panel price range.

    The can vary ± 10%.12% based on the brand, location, promotions, and availability.

    Solar Panel Model (Watt) Selling Price Price Per Watt
    165 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 4500.5000 Rs. 27-30
    200 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 5500- 6000 Rs. 28-30
    375 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 10,000-10,500 Rs. 26-28
    400 W Mono perc solar panel Rs. 11000-11500 Rs. 27- 28

    Subsidies on Mono Perc Solar Panel

    The government encourages the adoption of renewable solar energy by offering a subsidy on solar panels. It financially supports the installation of solar power systems in residential homes.

    Consumers must note that the solar subsidy is only available on DCR panels for residential use.

    In other words, there’s no subsidy available for mono perc solar panels since these panels are not entirely manufactured in India.

    Maintenance of a Mono Perc Solar Panel

    Consider the following pointers to take good care of your mono perc solar panels:

    • While installing the panels, ensure that you set the right orientation. Install them in shade-free places.
    • Opt for proper periodic cleaning.⁣
    • Adopt measures to prevent overheating during hot sunny days.⁣
    • Use a solar concentrator to maximise the output.

    Conclusion

    Efficiency is a key parameter to consider when selecting a solar panel.⁣ On average, a mono perc solar panel comes with a 22%-25% efficiency boost promise.

    Opting for a mono perc solar panel is a cost-effective option and these panels take up less space.

    The innumerable benefits that easily compensate for the high purchase cost are the main contributing factors to the skyrocketing popularity of mono perc solar panels.

    FAQs

    Q1. Which one is better: Mono or Mono perc solar panel?

    When taking into consideration the overall energy production and space requirement, mono-perc solar panels are better than standard mono panels.

    Q2. What is a bifacial mono perc solar panel?

    Mono perc bifacial panels are formed by using the perc technology with bifacial modules. Bifacial solar panels have two sides of solar cells collecting light.

    Q3. Are bifacial mono perc solar panels suitable for residential purposes?

    Bifacial solar panels are more suitable for commercial and utility solar developers rather than residential rooftop projects.

    Also, these panels need space behind them so the reflected light can reach the panel. Therefore, it isn’t appropriate to install them on rooftops.

    PERC solar cell: How much do you know?

    As the photovoltaic industry develops, there are many kinds of solar panel technologies for customers to choose from. One of the most important and mature technologies is called PERC, which stands for either Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell or Passivated Emitter and Rear Contact. It is a simple and cost-effective way to make more power from the same amount of space. Today, we’ll dive into what PERC solar cells are and how they impact solar panel technology in this article.

    What is PERC solar cell?

    PERC is a technology which is used to improve the efficiency of solar cells by capturing as many extra photons as possible without fundamentally changing how a solar cell works. It defines a solar cell architecture that differs from the standard cell architecture that has been in use for three decades and that is usually featured in all photovoltaic manuals.

    To better understand PERC cell technology, let’s first learn about standard solar panels. A standard solar panel cell contains two layers of silicon, commonly called “n-type” and “p-type” for their negative and positive charge behavior. As it is known, a solar panel creates electricity when sunlight hits the solar cells, knocking electrons loose from the n-type layer as the p-type layer accepts them, creating an electric field. Solar cells built with only two silicon wire layers will encounter a few efficiency losses.

    Solar panels built with PERC cells have an additional layer on the back of the traditional solar cells. At its core, a PERC solar cell is simply a more efficient solar cell, meaning that solar panels built with PERC cells can convert sunlight into usable electricity more easily. Solar panels made from PERC solar cells typically perform better than traditional panels in both low-light environments and high temperatures.

    How do PERC solar cells differ from standard solar cells?

    The main difference between PERC solar cells and standard solar cells is the integration of a back surface passivation layer, which is a layer of material on the back of the cells that provides three main benefits that boost cell efficiency.

    Reduced electron recombination

    The addition of a back surface passivation layer reduces “electron recombination” in the solar cell. To be simple, electron recombination is the tendency of electrons to recombine, which causes a blockage in the free movement of electrons through the solar cell. This inhibition of free electron movement leads to less-than-optimal cell efficiencies. In a PERC solar cell, electron recombination will be reduced in order to bump up efficiency.

    Reflection of light back through the cell

    A back surface passivation layer reflects light that passes through the silicon cell without being absorbed back into the silicon, giving the solar cell a second absorption attempt. This reflection of light means that more incoming solar radiation will end up being absorbed by the silicon cell, thus the cell becomes more efficient.

    Reduced heat absorption

    The third benefit from a PERC solar cell is the reflection of certain wavelengths of light. A silicon wafer in a solar cell can only absorb light in wavelengths up to 1180 nanometers (nm), and higher-wavelength light waves pass through the silicon and are absorbed by the solar panel’s metal back sheet, creating heat. When solar cells are heated, they operate at lower efficiencies. The back surface passivation layer in PERC solar cells is specially designed to reflect light with a wavelength above 1180 nm, reducing the heat energy in the solar cell and consequently increasing efficiency.

    Pros and Cons of PERC Solar Cells

    As we described above, PERC technology reflects photons back into the silicon layers, causing the cell to produce more power and preventing electron recombination. These two benefits result in increased energy conversion efficiency and decreased heat in solar modules. They also ensure the cells work better in low light by producing meaningful voltage with less light than standard solar cells.

    Finally, PERC solar cells are relatively easy to make because manufacturers can use almost all of the same equipment and materials they use to make less-efficient solar cells. PERC technology can be added to both mono and polysilicon solar cells, and works well in bifacial applications, as well.

    The cons of PERC solar cells have largely been mitigated in recent years, Chief among the concerns with this technology is a problem called Light-Induced Degradation (LID), which occurs in all silicon solar cells, but can be especially pronounced in PERC cells.

    LID occurs when boron from the positive silicon layer and oxygen mix, and usually results in a small, immediate reduction in power generation capability. This problem can be worse in PERC cells, but all companies that produce and use PERC cells have come up with ways to fight it.

    Since the PERC solar cells have multiple layers, more steps are required in the manufacture of PERC solar cells, leading to higher costs. The current favorable situation is that the efficiency of PERC is improving faster than the increase in cost, and the cost of raw materials is also falling. The trend shows that PERC solar cell will replace the standard solar cell structure.

    PERC solar cells are an exciting technology in the photovoltaic industry and can be a solution for property owners looking to maximize energy production with high-efficiency panels. PERC modules are becoming increasingly popular, and may dominate market share in the coming years.

    By SRNE | 2021-12-09T14:26:3308:00 September 3rd, 2021 | Blog, Free Guides | Комментарии и мнения владельцев Off on PERC solar cell: How much do you know

    PERC technology and solar panels

    PERC (Passivated Emitter Rear Cell technology), or the production technology of P-Type photovoltaic cells and panels.

    PERC technology is the most popular method of producing photovoltaic cells and solar panels. P-Type panels constitute approx. 70% of all produced photovoltaic modules in the world. Due to the fact that the technology has been leading in the last few years, the price and availability of these panels are at an optimal level. However, as with any technology, the peak of popularity often means the decline of dominance. In the case of PERC, there is also a slow technological regression and a shift from P-Type to N-Type and HJT.

    How the PERC Cell Works?

    Like all solar cells, P-TYPE converts sunlight into electricity.A conventional photovoltaic cell works by converting sunlight directly into electricity.

    Light is made of elementary particles called photons. Traveling at the speed of light, photons collide with the silicon in a solar cell. At this point, one of four things can happen to the photon:

    The photon is reflected.The photon passes directly through the solar cell.The photon is absorbed by the cell and converted into heat.The solar cell captures a photon and excites an electron to create electricity.As you can see, not every photon produces electricity in a cell: in the case of PERC solar panels, the conversion efficiency hovers around 20%. The best series-produced P-Type photovoltaic panels reach 21%.

    Solar cells are only capable of capturing photons within a certain energy range, therefore many photons simply pass or are absorbed by the silicon without exciting an electron and thus producing no electricity.

    PERC is one of the technologies, next to HJT and sister N-TYpe, used to improve the capture rate.

    How does PERC improve solar cell efficiency?

    To increase the number of photons captured by the solar cell, PERC technology has two additional layers on the back of the cell. These layers improve the movement of electrons in the photovoltaic cell and also reflect light back into the solar cell, giving a second chance to capture electrons that would otherwise simply pass through the silicon.

    P-TYPE vs N-TYPE

    In some ways, solar cells are really simple. The light shines into them, precipitating electrons from silicon atoms. A cell is built in such a way that electrons are often blocked from returning to the atoms they came from. Instead, they travel through the fine mesh of wires at the top of the cell to the back of the cell and are transformed into electricity as they travel.

    This is what happens in a P-type solar cell. Because P stands for positive and the photovoltaic cell has a positive base that attracts negatively charged electrons to it.

    The exact opposite process takes place in N-type cells. Since the base is negative, the electrons travel from the negative bottom to the positive top.

    This is what N-cells do. Currently, they are only used by some manufacturers (Jolywood, AKCOME, Risen and Jinergy) of high-end panels. But because they provide an efficiency advantage and could eventually replace conventional P-type solar cells. This means that no electrons will be transported to the bottom of the solar cells anymore, which is good as this will improve the efficiency of the solar panels.

    PERC worse than N-Type and HJT?

    The biggest difference between N-type and P-Type is that ordinary P cells have the problematic element boron added to silicon, while N cells receive a much more optimal element – phosphorus.

    Usually, the impurities in silicon are bad. But when it comes to getting solar cells to work, they must be “contaminated”.

    This contamination is called enrichment and adding it is called enrichment. This causes a difference in electric charge between the top and bottom of the cell when light is shone on them.

    The boron used in P-cells works well but has some drawbacks. On the one hand, it causes light-induced degradation of the “LID”. It reduces solar panels’ efficiency by about 1.5% after their first few days in the sun. The LID effect is included in the power of the panels. This effect harms efficiency and is one of the reasons why even large investors are overly optimistic about how much electricity their PV systems and solar farms will generate.

    Phosphorus does not have this effect, so N-type cells start with high efficiency, with no drop caused by the LID effect.

    Another advantage is that certain types of contaminants in the production of photovoltaic cells apparently have less effect on N-type cells.

    informative, guide, mono, perc, solar, panels

    PERC panel – how does it work?

    For the most commonly produced P-type silicon cells, the cell base is positive and the top portion is negative. The top layer of N-Type silicon, in which electrons accumulate, is called the emitter. Since the negative electrons at the top are blocked from following the shortest path to the positive atoms below, they pass through the fine mesh of wires on the cell’s surface and travel until they reach the bottom of the solar cell. Once they start their journey, it is possible to use them to generate electricity.

    The electrons and atoms recombine under the metal contacts on the surface or back of the cell, reducing the voltage and limiting the output of the photovoltaic cell. This effect can be reduced by passivation, which means the first letter in PERC.

    Passivation of a photovoltaic cell.

    Passivation is the formation of a layer of oxidized material. The layer under the wire mesh on the surface of the PERC cell is usually aluminum oxide. On the back of the cell is aluminum oxide or silicon oxide, followed by a layer of silicon nitride. All of this folds into four letters in PERC – Passivated Emitter and Rear CELL, i.e. the rear cell.

    On the back of the cell, the metal contacts still need to touch the silicon cell. Therefore, when using a laser to cut holes in the back passivation layer, holes are created for the metal contacts to enter.

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