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5 Best Solar Panels for Homes (2023 Costs, Reviews & More). Small pv panels

5 Best Solar Panels for Homes (2023 Costs, Reviews & More). Small pv panels

    Best Solar Panels for Homes (2023 Costs, Reviews )

    Each product and or company featured here has been independently selected by the writer. You can learn more about our review methodology here. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.

    Written by Karsten Neumeister

    Karsten is an editor and energy specialist focused on environmental, social and cultural development. His work has been shared by sources including NPR, the World Economic Forum, Marketwatch and the SEIA, and he is certified in ESG with the CFA Institute. Before joining EcoWatch, Karsten worked in the solar energy sector, studying energy policy, climate tech and environmental education. A lover of music and the outdoors, Karsten might be found rock climbing, canoeing or writing songs when away from the workplace. Learn About This Person

    Reviewed by Melissa Smith

    Melissa is an avid writer, scuba diver, backpacker and all-around outdoor enthusiast. She graduated from the University of Florida with degrees in journalism and sustainability studies. Before joining EcoWatch, Melissa worked as the managing editor of Scuba Diving magazine and the communications manager of The Ocean Agency, a nonprofit that’s featured in the Emmy award-winning documentary Chasing Coral. Learn About This Person

    Why you can trust EcoWatch

    We work with a panel of solar experts to create unbiased reviews that empower you to make the right choice for your home. No other site has covered renewables as long as us, which means we have more data and insider information than other sites. Our rankings are never affected by revenue or partnerships.

    Jump to Section:

    • What Are the Best Solar Panels for Homes?
    • What Should You Look for When Choosing Solar Panels for Your Home?
    • Compare the Top-Rated Solar Panels for Homes
    • Compare the Top-Rated Residential PV Panel Manufacturers
    • What is the Best Type of Solar Panel for Your Home?
    • Do Top-of-the-Line Solar Panels for Homes Still Require Maintenance?
    • What Impacts the Performance of Residential Solar Panels?
    • Bottom Line: What’s the Best Residential Solar Panel for You?
    • Methodology: How We Reviewed Solar Panels for Homes
    • Expert Advice on Residential Solar Panel Efficiency
    • FAQs: Best Solar Panels for Homes

    Find the best price from solar installers in your area.

    What Are the Best Solar Panels for Homes?

    Most solar panel manufacturers produce photovoltaic (PV) panels for residential use, but the options aren’t all created equal. Each brand has a different efficiency level, rate of degradation, durability and more, so choosing the best option for your solar project can be quite confusing. To make matters worse, opting for the wrong brand could cut into your energy savings over time.

    In this article, we’ll be discussing the top five best solar panels for homes, and we’ll explain why each is a great option for your rooftop solar system. We’ll also explain what to look for in a high-performance panel to help you pick the best one for your needs. You can also refer to our review of the top solar panel installers if you’re searching for the best provider for your home.

    The five solar panel companies below are the manufacturers we’ve identified as the best in the industry for home PV panels:

    We’ll explain why we feel these panels are the best in the solar industry for home renewable energy systems below. Each panel includes a drop-down menu with additional information.


    The panels from SunPower and its sister company, Maxeon, are considered some of the best in the entire industry by customers and solar professionals alike. SunPower has set the record for the highest panel efficiency available, which translates to greater savings in the long run, and the performance specifications and warranty coverage also outclasses just about every competitor. These panels are expensive, but we feel they’re worth it.

    Ultimately, we recommend SunPower panels for anyone who wants the highest level of performance and doesn’t mind paying a bit more for it.

    What We Like

    First and foremost, SunPower panels reach real-world efficiency ratings of up to 22.8%, which is the highest in the industry. Greater efficiency means improved savings on your utility bills, a faster panel payback period and more value overall from your clean energy system.

    SunPower panels also come backed by an industry-leading 40-year warranty, which is around 60% higher than the standard 25 years of coverage. The production warranty guarantees a below-average efficiency loss of 2% in the first year and about half of the loss per year after that. Ultimately, these panels provide more peace of mind that your electric bills will remain low or even non-existent.

    SunPower panels mostly come in entirely black models and never have visible grid lines, so they’re a sleek option that most solar customers don’t mind mounting to their roofs.

    What We Don’t Like

    The only real downside when it comes to SunPower panels is the cost. These panels average around 3.30 per watt, which means a typical 9 kW system will cost around 5,800 more than if you bought panels priced at the average cost of 2.66.

    Still, we think the higher price is worth it for the durability and greater performance, which could actually end up saving you money on energy costs over time.

    Read our full review of SunPower for more information.

    Solar Panel Options

    SunPower has two product lines available: the Maxeon lineup and the Performance lineup. We’ll include a breakdown of all of the panel options within these product lines below.

    • Maxeon 6: The Maxeon 6 panels are the solar modules with the company’s and industry’s highest rating for efficiency: 22.8%. These are entirely black panels coming in a few options between 420 and 440 watts per panel.
    • Maxeon 3: The Maxeon 3 panels are slightly less powerful but still have a well-above-average efficiency rating of up to 22.6%. These panels range from 355 to 430 watts and can still allow you to install fewer panels on your roof for the same power production than panels from other manufacturers.
    • Performance 6: The Performance 6 panels are a more affordable option than those in the Maxeon series. They have a less attractive efficiency rating of up to 21.1%, although this still sits above the industry average of 20%. They range from 395 to 415 watts per panel.
    • Performance 3: The Performance 3 panels are also more affordable than the Maxeon models. They’re available in power outputs ranging from 370 to 390 watts, and they peak at 19.9% efficiency. These panels degrade more quickly than the other models, but they still hold efficiency better than the industry average.

    Warranty Information

    As mentioned above, SunPower provides the top solar panel warranty in the entire industry for residential panels. The Maxeon lineup comes with an incredible 40-year warranty for the equipment and panel efficiency. The Performance models include a 25-year warranty for power production and manufacturer defects.

    All SunPower panels include a 25-year workmanship warranty, which is more than double the industry standard. You also get 10 years of roof leak coverage, which most providers don’t offer at all.

    Installation Options

    SunPower used to manufacture its own panels and outsource installations to third parties. The company went through a restructuring recently, and now its sister company Maxeon handles manufacturing. SunPower still outsources most of its installations, but it has started to complete some with an in-house team.

    The company has no specific relationships with installers, so any company that can pass certification tests from SunPower can install its products.

    Q Cells

    Q Cells, which is a brand manufactured by Hanwha, is the best solar company for value, in our opinion. Despite being more affordable than most other tier-one solar panel brands at 2.75 per watt, its panels still have above-average efficiency ratings and performance specs. They’re not quite as impressive in their durability as some other options, but they’re still an outstanding choice for many solar customers.

    We recommend Q Cells for solar customers who want the best performance per dollar.

    What We Like

    Q Cells panels get a lot of things right, including an average efficiency that’s around the industry average. It matches SunPower in terms of first-year solar panel degradation as well, so the efficiency over time is going to be better than you’ll see from many competitors.

    Q Cells offers robust warranty coverage for performance and manufacturer defects that’s in line with the industry average of 25 years each. Its panels also come rated to withstand 4,000 pascal units on the rear of the panel, which means it’s better than most for areas that see strong winds and will help prevent mishaps and costly replacements.

    Finally, and most importantly, Q Cells panels average around 2.75 per watt, as compared to comparable brands that average around 3.00 per watt.

    What We Don’t Like

    While Q Cells matches SunPower in terms of first-year efficiency degradation, the efficiency loss per year after that is a bit higher. Additionally, the maximum efficiency currently available from the company is 20.9%. While this is above the industry standard, we’d love to see an efficiency rating topping 21%, like most of Q Cells’s competitors.

    Q Cells also only has two solar panels for homes in production at this time. We’d ideally like to see more variety to give solar customers the opportunity to bring down solar panel installation costs or push up performance.

    Solar Panel Options

    As mentioned above, Q Cells has two solar panel options for home solar energy systems. We’ll list these below and include a brief description of each to help you decide which might be right for your home.

    • Q.PEAK DUO BLK ML-G10: This is the higher-efficiency option of the two, topping out at 20.9%. It comes in sizes from 385 watts up to 410 watts. These panels are all black, which most customers prefer. They have a low temperature coefficient that’s well below average, which means they’re better suited for hot climates than most panels and won’t drop significantly in production in high temperatures.
    • Q.PEAK DUO BLK-G10: This model is smaller than the ML-G10 and comes with a lower power output per panel. It ranges from 350 to 370 watts. These panels have a slightly less appealing efficiency than the other option as well, at 20.6%. These panels have 120 cells each, as opposed to the 132 you get with the larger model. That means a lower overall production, so you might need more of these panels to meet your energy needs.

    Warranty Information

    Q Cells provides a 25-year warranty for all of its products, which covers manufacturer defects. This is in line with what most competitors provide. However, Q Cells has a special solar cell testing process that eliminates most issues related to potential-induced degradation (PID). Since PID can cause dips in panel efficiency over time, this helps Q Cells panels maintain their peak power generation capabilities.

    Q Cells also covers efficiency for 25 years. This is also typical, but the degradation rate is below average. The first-year dip is set at a maximum of 2%, as opposed to the industry average of 2.5%, and the subsequent-year dip is 0.45%, which is just below the average of 0.5%. Overall, the slower degradation rate means your panels will continue producing more power than most other brands over the warranty term.

    Installation Options

    Q Cells doesn’t have a certification program for installers like SunPower does, so any solar provider that has a relationship with the company can purchase and install its panels. You should have no issues finding an installer near you that carries Q Cells equipment.

    Trina Solar

    In our opinion, Trina Solar is right up there with Q Cells when it comes to high-quality equipment for the money. Trina panels are a bit more expensive at an average of 2.85 per watt, and they deliver similar efficiency ratings, temperature coefficients and other performance specs. It outclasses Q Cells when it comes to durability, with an industry-leading 1% efficiency loss in the first year and a superior 0.4% annual degradation after that.

    We recommend these panels to solar customers who want outstanding value for their money and don’t have access to Q Cells panels or want to ensure their energy savings last as long as possible.

    What We Like

    All panels lose efficiency over time, but Trina provides some of the lowest degradation rates for the money. The panels are just slightly above-average in terms of cost per watt, but they outperform just about every other panel in its price range when it comes to durability.

    Trina panels start out with above-average efficiency ratings as well, topping out at 20.4 and averaging around 20%, which is far better than the average of 15%.

    Trina has great warranty coverage for its solar equipment, but one of the most appealing aspects about the protection is that, unlike companies like SunPower, there’s no specific training required to maintain the warranty coverage. That means Trina remains widely available to customers across the country via a huge network of providers.

    What We Don’t Like

    Trina’s average efficiency might be above the industry average, but it is lower than several other top-tier panels. We still feel the value provided is excellent, but there are more efficient solar options that can provide greater energy savings over time if you’re willing to invest a little more. Opting for a higher-efficiency panel could yield more savings in the long run.

    Trina panels also come with a lower maximum wind load than many competitors, at just 2,400 pascal units. That means they might not be ideal for homes in areas that could experience high winds from extreme weather like hurricanes, tropical storms, tornadoes and other natural disasters.

    Solar Panel Options

    Trina Solar has two product lines available for residential customers: the aptly named Residential line and the Vertex line. There are five products total between the two product lines.

    • Trina Solar Residential 335W: These panels come in power outputs ranging from 310 to 335 watts, making them much smaller than the average 400-watt panel you’ll see from most direct competitors. These panels are physically smaller as well and could be a good option if you have a small roof that can’t fit the larger panel options.
    • Trina Solar Residential 365W: These panels are larger at between 355 and 380 watts, and they come with a max efficiency of 20.6%. These are good options for homeowners with roof space that can accommodate the larger panels but still want to pay as little as possible per watt, even if that means a less impressive efficiency rating than the following options.
    • Trina Solar Vertex S 395W: These Vertex S panels are about average in power output for the top-tier panels, so they’re the option we’d recommend if you’re looking for standard-sized panels but still want great performance and a reasonable upfront cost.
    • Trina Solar Vertex S 400W: These panels have an efficiency rating of 21.1%, so they’re going to lead to more savings over time than most of Trina’s other residential panel options. They also have a max wattage of 405 watts, so they’re one of the most appealing competitors to panels from companies like SunPower.
    • Trina Solar Vertex S Bifacial: These panels have an efficiency rating of 21.8%, which is the highest you can get from Trina in terms of home solar energy systems. We’d recommend these for homeowners who still want decent pricing but want to get the most for their money and don’t mind paying a premium for high-efficiency panels.

    Warranty Information

    Trina’s warranty coverage is similar to what you’ll find from most other companies on this list. The coverage for the equipment and the labor is 25 years. The degradation in the first year and the following 24 years of the warranty term are both below average, and the company has the lowest first-year efficiency loss we’ve seen.

    Trina’s warranty doesn’t require any paperwork or installer training, so you don’t have to worry about not being covered because a non-certified company installed your panels. The warranty can be transferred as well, although you will need to file transfer documents if you sell your home.

    Installation Options

    As we mentioned above, Trina lets any solar contractor install its panels without voiding the manufacturer’s warranty or the performance warranty. That not only means that any panels installed by a professional will be covered but also that this panel brand is accessible to most U.S. residents.

    REC Solar

    REC panels are some of the most popular in America, in large part because they provide efficiency ratings that are well above average—topping out at 22.3%—but also have lower than options from other high-efficiency solar companies like SunPower and Panasonic. We’d recommend these panels to homeowners who don’t necessarily need the most impressive efficiency ratings possible but who still want above-average power output at a slightly lower cost.

    What We Like

    REC panels get a lot of things right, including efficiency. The average panel efficiency from the company is around 20.7% for residential models, which is well above average, and the max efficiency is 22.2%, making them one of the highest-rated panels available. Only a few other companies offer panels above the 22% mark.

    REC panels are known to be highly durable and adaptable to a wide range of climates and weather conditions. It has a below-average temperature coefficient, making it a great option for hot climates. It also has above-average wind and snow loads, so it’s a durable panel brand no matter where you live.

    What We Don’t Like

    REC panels come at that are quite a bit above average, at 3.00 per watt compared to the average of 2.66. You do get better efficiency ratings for the price, so we still think it’s worth it, but the brand will push up your installation costs. The panel degradation is in line with the average for the top-tier brands, but at this price point, we’d love to see lower efficiency loss rates.

    Additionally, some of the REC panel models come with below-average equipment coverage, like the REC Twinpeak 4, which has just 20 years of protection.

    Read our full review of REC for more information.

    Solar Panel Options

    REC has three product lines for homes, which include five total panel options:

    • REC Twinpeak 4: These are the smallest panels available from REC at between 360 and 375 watts. They have the lowest efficiency REC offers at 20%, so we’d recommend these for homeowners with small roofs who don’t need to maximize power production to meet high energy demands.
    • REC N-Peak 2: These panels have a slightly superior efficiency rating of 20.3%, and they come in at the same wattage as the Twinpeak 4. These have a greater efficiency retention rate, though, maintaining an industry-leading 92% efficiency after 25 years.
    • REC N-Peak 3 Black: This is the first entirely black panel from REC that has no grid visible grid lines, so it’s a desirable option from an aesthetic standpoint. These are larger at up to 400 watts, although they have a similar efficiency to the previous models.
    • REC Alpha Pure: These panels are also all black, and although they’re more expensive than the previous options, they have a much better efficiency of up to 22.2% thanks to the use of heterojunction (HJT) solar cells. We recommend these for customers looking for a premium option that isn’t quite at the highest pricing option from the manufacturer.
    • REC Alpha Pure-R: The Alpha Pure-R takes a step down in efficiency, coming in at just under 21%. However, they have a superior temperature coefficient of.0.26%/degree (C), which means it’s the company’s best option for homeowners in warmer climates. This makes it one of the best panel options in the industry for use in hotter areas.

    Warranty Information

    REC is one of the few solar manufacturers that bases its warranty coverage on the panel model you have installed. Most of the panels come with a 25-year manufacturer’s warranty for the equipment and a 25-year performance guarantee, but some only include 20-year equipment coverage.

    Additionally, some of the REC panels guarantee 92% efficiency after 25 years, which is some of the lowest efficiency losses in the industry, while others have a more aggressive decline in efficiency.

    Overall, we’d expect REC panels to last for between 25 and 30 years, on average.

    Installation Options

    REC has a certification program for installers across the country. If you get your panels installed by a certified contractor following the designation installation process, you’ll usually get a superior warranty package. However, just about any solar panel installer can carry and offer REC panels, which means the brand remains widely available throughout the country.


    Best Temperature Coefficient

    Panasonic panels are well-known for their outstanding efficiency rating, topping out at 22.2%. However, they’re also some of the best for solar customers in extreme climates, as they have the lowest temperature coefficient of any panel option we’ve reviewed. The high efficiency and low temperature coefficient mean they’re one of the best solar panels for providing maximum power in hot climates.

    Panasonic panels are on the expensive side, but we feel they’re worth it due to their outstanding performance.

    What We Like

    Panasonic has a maximum efficiency rating of 22.2%, which is well above the industry average and higher than most of the company’s direct competition. The panels also have below-average degradation rates, so those above-average efficiency ratings will continue to save you more money on your energy bills for longer.

    Panasonic has great snow load capabilities and an industry-leading temperature coefficient of just 0.25%, so they’re an outstanding option in areas that experience extreme cold and extreme heat. The low efficiency loss in high temperatures means these panels will keep your electricity costs as low as possible, regardless of the climate.

    What We Don’t Like

    Panasonic panels are above-average in price, coming in at around 3.10 per watt. It’s one of the most expensive options, although we feel the value you get is worth the investment. Panasonic is also the only option on our list that has a potentially negative power rating, so the performance can vary more than most of the competition at this tier.

    Solar Panel Options

    Panasonic has two lines of solar panels available for residential customers:

    • Panasonic HIT: The HIT panels from Panasonic are the more affordable option from the manufacturer, and they have a lower efficiency rating of around 20.3%. They range from 325 watts up to 340 watts. These are ideal for customers who want the reliability of the Panasonic name, want to keep costs down and don’t necessarily need the highest efficiency ratings available.
    • Panasonic EverVolt: The EverVolt product line includes a standard option and the H-Series. The standard EverVolt panels range from 360 to 370 watts, and the efficiency maxes out at 21.2%. This is a great option for balancing power output and price. The H-Series is better for customers looking for maximum efficiency ratings to offset high consumption. They are larger at 400 to 410 watts, and they hold the company’s highest efficiency ratings of 22.2%.

    Warranty Information

    Panasonic’s warranty coverage is slightly better than the industry average but is in line with the direct competition. It includes a 25-year product warranty and 25 years of coverage for the efficiency rating. The equipment warranty includes the cost of labor to replace any panels that experience failure.

    The efficiency warranty is one of the best in the industry, guaranteeing only a 2% loss in year one and a degradation of 0.26% annually thereafter. That means your panels will retain 91.76% of their efficiency after 25 years.

    Overall, we expect Panasonic panels to last the average of 25 to 30 years in most cases.

    Installation Options

    Panasonic partners with a large network of solar installers across the country, so you should have no problem finding a solar contractor that is certified to install its products. Many of those companies are also qualified to install Panasonic’s solar batteries and inverters/microinverters.

    Best Temperature Coefficient

    What Should You Look for When Choosing Solar Panels for Your Home?

    Since there are so many panel options available from a massive selection of manufacturers, it’s important to FOCUS on the aspects of the panels that will affect you the most. Prioritizing the below features, which we believe are most important for panels for your home, will likely provide you with the best experience and energy savings possible. Unfortunately, not choosing the right panels can lead to a solar energy system that doesn’t save you as much over time.

    Compare the Top-Rated Solar Panels for Homes

    Of all of the panel models from the manufacturers mentioned above, there are two that stand out for providing outstanding performance and overall value. These include the Maxeon 6 panels from SunPower and the Q.PEAK DUO BLK ML-G10 from Q Cells. These both provide above-average production and savings without compromising on overall quality.

    The table below includes a quick look at these two panel options and how they stack up against one another.

    Efficiency Rating Power Output Temperature Coefficient (per degree C over 25) Power Tolerance First-year Degradation Subsequent-year Degradation Efficiency After 25 Years Total Warranty Term
    Maxeon 6 22.8% 410W–440W -0.27% 0/5% 2% 0.25% 92% 40 years
    Q Cells BLK ML-G10 20.9% 385W–410W -0.34% 0/5% 2% 0.5% 85.5% 25 years
    Trina Solar Vertex S 21.1% 405W -0.34% 0/5% 2% 0.55% 84.8% 25 years
    REC Alpha Pure-R 22.3% 430W -0.24% -3%/3% 2% 0.25% 92% 25 years
    Panasonic EverVolt 22.2% 400W–410W -0.26% 0/10% 2% 0.25% 92% 25 years

    Compare the Top-Rated Residential PV Panel Manufacturers

    For most homeowners, we believe panels from SunPower and Q Cells should meet and exceed expectations. Both solar companies provide panels with excellent performance specifications that can perform well in virtually all climates and weather conditions. We’ll compare the panel options from these companies overall in the table below to help you decide which might be right for your solar project.

    Efficiency Score (Out of 25) Durability Score (Out of 20) Warranty Score (Out of 20) Price Point Score (Out of 20) Temperature Coefficient (Out of 10) Sustainability Score (Out of 2.5) Appearance Score (Out of 2.5) Our Overall Rating (Out of 100)
    SunPower 25.0 19.0 20.0 6.0 10.0 1.9 2.3 84.1
    Q Cells 23.0 17.0 16.0 16.0 7.0 1.9 2.5 83.4
    Trina Solar 23.0 15.5 16.0 14.0 7.0 1.9 1.5 78.9
    REC 25.0 13.0 16.0 10.0 7.0 1.9 1.8 74.6
    Panasonic 17.5 16.5 16.0 8.0 10.0 2.5 2.0 72.5

    Some other considerations for solar equipment, in addition to the five we’ve reviewed above, include Canadian Solar, Tesla and Silfab.

    What is the Best Type of Solar Panel for Your Home?

    When shopping for solar panels, it’s also helpful to know the panel types that are available. The three basic solar panel categories are monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin-film. Each type of solar panel comes with its own list of pros and cons:

    Monocrystalline Solar Panels

    Monocrystalline panels are made from a single, pure crystal of silicon. This allows them to have higher efficiency levels, but they also tend to be more expensive due to a more costly manufacturing process. Note: If you have less space on your roof and can only fit a small number of panels, monocrystalline solar panels may be the only viable option.

    Polycrystalline Solar Panels

    Polycrystalline solar panels are also made of silicon, but in this case, they are assembled from smaller fragments. This means polycrystalline solar panels are often a little less efficient than monocrystalline, but they are also a more affordable option.

    Thin-Film Solar Panels

    Finally, thin-film solar panels can be made from a variety of ultra-thin materials. They are recommended when you need something that’s lightweight, flexible and portable; they may work better for RVs and camping than for homes. Thin-film panels can be relatively low in efficiency when compared to the other two options.


    Reviews and information on the best Solar panels, inverters and batteries from SMA, Fronius, SunPower, SolaX, Q Cells, Trina, Jinko, Selectronic, Tesla Powerwall, ABB. Plus hybrid inverters, battery sizing, Lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries, off-grid and on-grid power systems.

    Solar Panel Efficiency

    Solar panel efficiency is a measure of the amount of sunlight (irradiation) that falls on the surface of a solar panel and is converted into electricity. Due to the many advances in photovoltaic technology over recent years, the average panel conversion efficiency has increased from 15% to well over 22%. This large jump in efficiency resulted in the power rating of a standard-size panel increasing from 250W to over 420W.

    As explained below, solar panel efficiency is determined by two main factors; the photovoltaic (PV) cell efficiency, based on the cell design and silicon type, and the total panel efficiency, based on the cell layout, configuration and panel size. Increasing the panel size can also increase efficiency due to creating a larger surface area to capture sunlight, with the most powerful solar panels now achieving up to 700W power ratings.

    Cell Efficiency

    Cell efficiency is determined by the cell structure and type of substrate used, which is generally either P-type or N-type silicon. Cell efficiency is calculated by what is known as the fill factor (FF), which is the maximum conversion efficiency of a PV cell at the optimum operating voltage and current. Note cell efficiency should not be confused with panel efficiency. The panel efficiency is always lower due to the internal cell gaps and frame structure included in the panel area. See further details below.

    The cell design plays a significant role in panel efficiency. Key features include the silicon type, busbar configuration, junction and passivation type (PERC). Panels built using Back-contact (IBC) cells are currently the most efficient (up to 23.8%) due to the high purity N-type silicon substrate and no losses from busbar shading. However, panels developed using the latest N-Type TOPcon, and advanced heterojunction (HJT) cells have achieved efficiency levels well above 22%. Ultra-high efficiency Tandem Perovskite cells are still in development but are expected to become commercially viable within the next two years. For a deeper technical insight, Progress in Photovoltaics publishes listings of the latest photovoltaic cell technologies twice a year.

    Panel Efficiency

    Solar panel efficiency is measured under standard test conditions (STC) based on a cell temperature of 25°C, solar irradiance of 1000W/m2 and Air Mass of 1.5. The efficiency (%) of a panel is effectively calculated by dividing the maximum power rating, or Pmax (W) at STC, by the total panel area measured in square meters.

    Overall panel efficiency can be influenced by many factors, including; temperature, irradiance level, cell type, and interconnection of the cells. Surprisingly, even the colour of the protective backsheet can affect efficiency. A black backsheet might look more aesthetically pleasing, but it absorbs more heat resulting in higher cell temperature, which increases resistance, this in turn slightly reduces total conversion efficiency.

    Panels built using advanced ‘Interdigitated back contact’ or IBC cells are the most efficient, followed by heterojunction (HJT) cells, TOPcon cells, half-cut and multi-busbar monocrystalline PERC cells, shingled cells and finally 60-cell (4-5 busbar) mono cells. 60-cell poly or multicrystalline panels are generally the least efficient and equally the lowest cost panels.

    Top 10 most efficient solar panels

    The last two years have seen a surge in manufacturers releasing more efficient solar panels based on high-performance N-type HJT, TOPcon and Back-contact (IBC) cells. SunPower Maxeon panels led the industry for over a decade, but for the first time, lesser-known manufacturer Aiko Solar released the Black Hole series panels with an incredible 23.6% module conversion efficiency using a unique new ABC (All Back Contact) cell technology. Recom Tech also announced a next-generation Black Tiger series claimed to achieve 23.6% efficiency using a new TOPcon Back-contact cell architecture. LONGi Solar was only the second manufacturer to develop a module efficiency level of 22.8% with the new Hi-Mo 6 Scientists series. The Hi-Mo 6 series is based on a new hybrid IBC cell design, which LONGi calls HPBC. Canadian Solar has also revealed a new-generation Hi Hero module built using HJT cells, which is on par with the efficiency level of the renowned Maxeon series.

    Other leading panels include those from Jinko, REC, and Risen, featuring N-type HJT and TOPcon cells. High-performance panels from SPIC and Belinus using IBC cells have also closed the gap, plus new panels featuring multi-busbar (MBB) half-cut N-type TOPCon cells from JA Solar, Jolywood and Qcells and most leading manufacturers have helped boost panel efficiency above 22%.

    # Make Model Power Efficiency
    1 Aiko Solar Black Hole series 460 W 23.6 %
    2 Recom Tech Black Tiger 460 W 23.6 %
    3 Longi Solar Hi-Mo 6 Scientist 450W 23.0 %
    4 SunPower Maxeon 6 440 W 22.8 %
    5 Canadian Solar Hi Hero HJT 445 W 22.8 %
    6 Jinko Solar Tiger NEO N-Type 440 W 22.5 %
    7 Risen Energy Hyper-Ion HJT 440 W 22.5 %
    8 REC Alpha Pure R 430 W 22.3 %
    9 SPIC Andromeda 2.0 440 W 22.3 %
    10 Qcells Q.Tron-G1 400 W 22.3 %

    Updated June 2023. Residential size panels. 54 to 66 cells (108-HC, 120-HC or 132-HC) and 96/104 cell formats. Does not include commercial panels greater than 2.0m in length.

    Below is the latest Clean Energy Reviews downloadable chart of the most efficient residential solar panels for 2023, with PV cell technology details added for comparison.

    Why efficiency matters

    The term efficiency is thrown around a lot but a slightly more efficient panel doesn’t always equate to a better quality panel. Many people consider efficiency to be the most important criteria when selecting a solar panel, but what matters most is the manufacturing quality which is related to real world performance, reliability, manufacturers service, and warranty conditions. Read more about selecting the best quality solar panels here.

    Faster Payback

    In environmental terms, increased efficiency generally means a solar panel will pay back the embodied energy (energy used to extract the raw materials and manufacture the solar panel) in less time. Based on detailed lifecycle analysis, most silicon-based solar panels already repay the embodied energy within two years, depending on the location. However, as panel efficiency has increased beyond 20%, payback time has reduced to less than 1.5 years in many locations. Increased efficiency also means a solar system will generate more electricity over the average 20 year life of a solar panel and repay the upfront cost sooner, meaning the return on investment (ROI) will be improved further.

    Longer life and lower degradation

    Solar panel efficiency generally indicates performance, especially as most high-efficiency panels use higher-grade N-type silicon cells with an improved temperature coefficient and lower power degradation over time. efficient panels using N-type cells benefit from a lower rate of light-induced degradation or LID, which is as low as 0.25% of power loss per year. When calculated over the panel’s 25 to 30 year life, many of these high-efficiency panels are guaranteed to still generate 90% or more of the original rated capacity, depending on the manufacturer’s warranty details. Due to the higher purity composition, N-type cells offer higher performance by having a greater tolerance to impurities and lower defects, increasing overall efficiency.

    Area Vs Efficiency

    Efficiency does make a big difference in the amount of roof area required. Higher efficiency panels generate more energy per square meter and thus require less overall area. This is perfect for rooftops with limited space and can also allow larger capacity systems to be fitted to any roof. For example, 12 x higher efficiency 400W solar panels, with a 21.8% conversion efficiency, will provide around 1200W (1.2kW) more total solar capacity than the same number of similar size 300W panels with a lower 17.5% efficiency.

    • 12 x 300W panels at 17.5% efficiency = 3,600 W
    • 12 x 400W panels at 21.8% efficiency = 4,800 W

    Real-world efficiency

    In real-world use, solar panel operating efficiency is dependent on many external factors. Depending on the local environmental conditions these various factors can reduce panel efficiency and overall system performance. The main factors which affect solar panel efficiency are listed below:

    The factors which have the most significant impact on panel efficiency in real-world use are irradiance, shading, orientation and temperature.

    Solar Irradiance

    The level of solar irradiance, also referred to as solar radiation, is measured in watts per square meter (W/m2) and is influenced by atmospheric conditions such as clouds smog, latitude and time of year. The average solar irradiance just outside the Earth’s atmosphere is around 1360 W/m2, while the solar irradiance at ground level, averaged throughout the year, is roughly 1000W/m2, hence why this is the official figure used under standard test conditions (STC) to determine the solar panel efficiency and power ratings. However, solar irradiance can be as high as 1200W/m2 in some locations during the middle of summer when the sun is directly overhead. In contrast, solar irradiance can fall well below 500W/m2 on a sunny day in winter or in smoggy conditions.


    Naturally, if a panel is fully shaded, the power output will be very low, but partial shading can also have a big impact, not only on panel efficiency but total system efficiency. For example, slight shading over several cells on a single panel can reduce power output by 50% or more, which in turn can reduce the entire string power by a similar amount since most panels are connected in series and shading one panel affects the whole string. Therefore it is very important to try to reduce or eliminate shading if possible. Luckily there are add-on devices known as optimisers and micro-inverters, which can reduce the negative effect of shading, especially when only a small number of panels are shaded. Using shorter strings in parallel can also help reduce the effect of shading, as the shaded panels in one string will not reduce the current output of parallel unshaded strings.

    Efficiency Vs temperature

    The power rating of a solar panel, measured in Watts (W), is calculated under Standard Test Conditions (STC) at a cell temperature of 25°C and an irradiance level of 1000W/m2. However, in real-world use, cell temperature generally rises well above 25°C, depending on the ambient air temperature, wind speed, time of day and amount of solar irradiance (W/m2). During sunny weather, the internal cell temperature is typically 20-30°C higher than the ambient air temperature, which equates to approximately 8-15% reduction in total power output. depending on the type of solar cell and its temperature coefficient. To provide an average real-world estimate of solar panel performance, most manufacturers will also specify the power rating under NOCT conditions or the Nominal Operating Cell Temperature. NOCT performance is typically specified at a cell temperature of 45°C and a lower solar irradiance level of 800W/m2, which attempts to approximate the average real-world operating conditions of a solar panel.

    Conversely, extremely cold temperatures can result in an increase in power generation above the nameplate rating as the PV cell voltage increases at lower temperatures below STC (25°C). Solar panels can exceed the panel power rating (Pmax) for short periods of time during very cold weather. This often occurs when full sunlight breaks through after a period of cloudy weather.

    The Power Temperature Coefficient

    Cell temperatures above or below STC will either reduce or increase the power output by a specific amount for every degree above or below 25°C. This is known as the power temperature coefficient which is measured in %/°C. Monocrystalline panels have an average temperature coefficient of.0.38% /°C, while polycrystalline panels are slightly higher at.0.40% /°C. Monocrystalline IBC cells have a much better (lower) temperature coefficient of around.0.30%/°C while the best performing cells at high temperatures are HJT (heterojunction) cells which are as low as.0.25% /°C.

    Temperature coefficient comparison

    The power temperature coefficient is measured in % per °C. Lower is more efficient

    • Polycrystalline P-Type cells. 0.39 to 0.43 % /°C
    • Monocrystalline P-Type cells. 0.35 to 0.40 % /°C
    • Monocrystalline N-type TOPcon. 0.29 to 0.32 % /°C
    • Monocrystalline N-Type IBC cells. 0.28 to 0.31 % /°C
    • Monocrystalline N-Type HJT cells. 0.25 to 0.27 % /°C

    The chart below highlights the difference in power loss between panels using different PV cell types. N-type heterojunction (HJT), TOPcon and IBC cells show far lower power loss at elevated temperatures compared to traditional poly and monocrystalline P-Type cells.

    Power Vs Temperature chart notes:

    • STC = Standard test conditions. 25°C (77°F)
    • NOCT = Nominal operating cell temperature. 45°C (113°F)
    • (^) High cell temp = Typical cell temperature during hot summer weather. 65°C (149°F)
    • (#) Maximum operating temp = Maximum panel operating temperature during extremely high temperatures mounted on a dark coloured rooftop. 85°C (185°F)

    Cell temperature is generally 20°C higher than the ambient air temperature which equates to a 5-8% reduction in power output at NOCT. However, cell temperature can rise as high as 85°C when mounted on a dark coloured rooftop during very hot 45°C, windless days which is generally considered the maximum operating temperature of a solar panel.

    most efficient solar Cells

    The most efficient solar panels on the market generally use either N-type (IBC) monocrystalline silicon cells or other highly efficient N-type variations, including heterojunction (HJT) and TOPcon cells. Most manufacturers traditionally used the standard and lower-cost P-type mono-PERC cells; however, many large-volume manufacturers, including JinkoSolar, JA Solar, Longi Solar, Canadian Solar and Trina Solar, are now rapidly shifting to more efficient N-type cells using HJT or TOPcon cell designs.

    Efficiency of panels using different cell types

    • Polycrystalline. 15 to 18%
    • Monocrystalline. 16.5 to 19%
    • Polycrystalline PERC. 17 to 19.5%
    • Monocrystalline PERC. 17.5 to 20%
    • Monocrystalline N-type. 19 to 20.5%
    • Monocrystalline N-type TOPcon. 21 to 22.6%
    • Monocrystalline N-type HJT. 21.2 to 22.8%
    • Monocrystalline N-type IBC. 21.5 to 23.6%

    Several new variations of Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) cell architectures have emerged, of which the exact cell construction has not been fully disclosed. This includes LONGi Solar’s Hybrid Passivated Back Contact (HPBC) technology and Aiko Solar’s ABC (All Back Contact) cell technology.

    Cost Vs Efficiency

    All manufacturers produce a range of panels with different efficiency ratings depending on the silicon type used and whether they incorporate PERC, multi busbar or other cell technologies. Very efficient panels above 21% featuring N-type cells are generally much more expensive, so if cost is a major limitation it would be better suited to locations with limited mounting space, otherwise, you can pay a premium for the same power capacity which could be achieved by using 1 or 2 additional panels. However, high-efficiency panels using N-type cells will almost always outperform and outlast panels using P-type cells due to the lower rate of light-induced degradation or LID, so the extra cost is usually worth it in the long term.

    For Example, a high-efficiency 400W panel could cost 350 or more while a common 370W panel will typically cost closer to 185. This equates to roughly 0.50 per watt compared to 0.90 per watt. Although in the case of the leading manufacturers such as Sunpower, Panasonic and REC, the more expensive panels deliver higher performance with lower degradation rates and generally come with a longer manufacturer or product warranty period, so it’s often a wise investment.

    Panel Size Vs Efficiency

    Panel efficiency is calculated by the power rating divided by the total panel area, so just having a larger size panel does not always equate to higher efficiency. However, larger panels using larger size cells increases the cell surface area which does boost overall efficiency.

    Most common residential panels still use the standard 6” (156mm) square 60-cell panels while commercial systems use the larger format 72 cell panels. However, as explained below, a new industry trend emerged in 2020 towards much larger panel sizes built around new larger size cells which increased panel efficiency and boosted power output up to an impressive 600W.

    Common Solar panel sizes

    • 60 cell panel (120 HC) : Approx width 0.98m x length 1.65m
    • 72 cell panel (144 HC) : Approx width 1.0m x length 2.0m
    • 96/104 cell panel: Approx width 1.05m x length 1.60m
    • 66 cell panel (132 HC). Approx width 1.10m x length 1.80m
    • 78 cell panel (156 HC): Approx width 1.30m x length 2.4m

    A standard size 60-cell (1m x 1.65m) panel with 18-20% efficiency typically has a power rating of 300-330 Watts, whereas a panel using higher efficiency cells, of the same size, can produce up to 370W. As previously explained, the most efficient standard-size panels use high-performance N-type IBC or Interdigitated Back Contact cells which can achieve up to 22.8% panel efficiency and generate an impressive 390 to 440 Watts.

    Popular half-cut or split cell modules have double the number of cells with roughly the same panel size. A panel with 60 cells in a half-cell format is doubled to 120 cells, and 72 cells in a half-cell format have 144 cells. The half-cut cell configuration is slightly more efficient as the panel voltage is the same but the current is split between the two halves. Due to the lower current, half-cut panels have lower resistive losses resulting in increased efficiency and a lower temperature co-efficient which also helps boost operating efficiency.

    New Larger cells and high power 600W panels

    To decrease manufacturing costs, gain efficiency and increase power, solar panel manufacturers have moved away from the standard 156mm (6”) square cell wafer size in favour of larger wafer sizes. There are a variety of various cell sizes now available with the most popular being 166mm, 182mm and 210mm. The larger cells combined with new larger panel formats have enabled manufacturers to develop extremely powerful solar panels with ratings up to 700W. Larger cell sizes have a greater surface area and when combined with the latest cell technologies such as multi-busbar (MBB), TOPcon and tiling ribbon, can boost panel efficiency well above 22%.

    Connecting Solar Panels Together

    Connecting solar panels together is a simple and effective way of increasing your solar power capabilities. Going green is a great idea, and as the sun is our ultimate power source, it makes sense to utilize this energy to power our homes. As solar power becomes more accessible, more and more homeowners are buying photovoltaic solar panels.

    However, these photovoltaic solar panels can be very costly so buying them over time helps to spread the cost. But the problem then becomes how do we connect these extra solar panels together to increase the voltage and power output of what’s already there.

    The trick here when connecting solar panels together is to choose a connection method that is going to give you the most energy efficient configuration for your particular requirements.

    Connecting solar panels together can seem like a daunting task when you first start to look at how it should be done, but connecting multiple solar panels together is not that hard with a little thought. Wiring solar panels together in either parallel or series combinations to make larger arrays is an often overlooked, yet completely essential part of any well designed solar power system.

    There are three basic but very different ways of connecting solar panels together and each connection method is designed for a specific purpose. For example, to produce more output voltage or to produce more current.

    Solar photovoltaic panels can be electrically connected together in series to increase the voltage output, or they can be connected together in parallel to increase the output amperage. Solar pv panels can also be wired together in both series and parallel combinations to increase both the output voltage and current to produce a higher wattage array.

    Whether you are connecting two or more solar panels, as long as you understand the basic principles of how connecting multiple solar panels together increases power and how each of these wiring methods works, you can easily decide on how to wire your own panels together. After all connecting solar panels together correctly can greatly improve the efficiency of your solar system.

    Connecting Solar Panels Together in Series

    The first method we will look at for connecting solar panels together is what’s known as “Series Wiring“. The electrical connection of solar panels in series increases the total system ouput voltage. Series connected solar panels are generally used when you have a grid connected inverter or charge controller that requires 24 volts or more. To series wire the panels together you connect the positive terminal to the negative terminal of each panel until you are left with a single positive and negative connection.

    best, solar, panels, homes, 2023

    Solar panels in series add up or sum the voltages produced by each individual panel, giving the total output voltage of the array as shown.

    Solar Panels in Series of Same Characteristics

    In this method ALL the solar panels are of the same type and power rating. The total voltage output becomes the sum of the voltage output of each panel. Using the same three 6 volt, 3.0 amp panels from above, we can see that when these pv panels are connected together in series, the array will produce an ouput voltage of 18 Volts (6 6 6) at 3.0 Amperes, giving 54 Watts (volts x amps) at full sun.

    Now lets look at connecting solar panels in series with different nominal voltages but with identical current ratings.

    Solar Panels in Series of Different Voltages

    In this method all the solar panels are of different types and power rating but have a common current rating. When they are connected together in series, the array produces 21 volts at 3.0 amps, or 63 watts. Again the output amperage will remain the same as before at 3.0 amps but the voltage output jumps to 21 volts (5 7 9).

    Finally, lets look at connecting solar panels in series with completely different nominal voltages and different current ratings.

    Solar Panels in Series of Different Currents

    In this method all the solar panels are of different types and power rating. The individual panel voltages will add together as before, but this time the amperage will be limited to the value of the lowest panel in the series string, in this case 1 Ampere. Then the array will produce 19 Volts (3 7 9) at 1.0 Ampere only, or only 19 watts out of a possible 69 watts available reducing the arrays efficiency.

    We can see that the solar panel rated at 9 volts, 5 amps, will only use one fifth or 20% of its maximum current potential reducing its efficiency and wasting money on the purchase of this solar panel. Connecting solar panels in series with different current ratings should only be used provisionally, as the solar panel with the lowest rated current determines the current output of the whole array.

    Connecting Solar Panels Together in Parallel

    The next method we will look at of connecting solar panels together is what’s known as “Parallel Wiring“. Connecting solar panels together in parallel is used to boost the total system current and is the reverse of the series connection. For parallel connected solar panels you connect all the positive terminals together (positive to positive) and all of the negative terminals together (negative to negative) until you are left with a single positive and negative connection to attach to your regulator and batteries.

    When you connect solar panels together in parallel, the total voltage output remains the same as it would for a single panel, but the output current becomes the sum of the output of each panel as shown.

    Solar Panels in Parallel of Same Characteristics

    In this method ALL the solar panels are of the same type and power rating. Using the same three 6 Volt, 3.0 Amp panels as above, the total output of the panels, when connected together in parallel, the output voltage still remains at the same value of 6 volts, but the total amperage has now increased to 9.0 Amperes (3 3 3), producing 54 watts at full sun.

    But what if our newly acquired solar panels are non-identical, how will this affect the other panels. We have seen that the currents add together, so no real problem there, just as long as the panel voltages are the same and the output voltage remains constant. Lets look at connecting solar panels in parallel with different nominal voltages and different current ratings.

    Solar Panels in Parallel with Different Voltages and Currents

    Here the parallel currents add up as before but the voltage adjusts to the lowest value, in this case 3 volts or some voltage value very close to 3 volts. Solar panels must have the same output voltage to be useful in parallel. If one panel has a higher voltage it will supply the load current to the degree that its output voltage drops to that of the lower voltage panel.

    We can see that the solar panel rated at 9 volts, 5 amps, will only operate at a maximum voltage of 3 volts as its operation is being influenced by the smaller panel, reducing its efficiency and wasting money on the purchase of this higher power solar panel. Connecting solar panels in parallel with different voltage ratings is not recommended as the solar panel with the lowest rated voltage determines the voltage output of the whole array.

    Then when connecting solar panels together in parallel it is important that they ALL have the same nominal voltage value, but it is not necessary that they have the same ampere value.

    Connecting Solar Panels Together Summary

    Connecting solar panels together to form bigger arrays is not all that complicated. How many series or parallel strings of panels you make up per array depends on what amount of voltage and current you are aiming for. If you are designing a 12 volt battery charging system than parallel wiring is perfect. If you are looking at a higher voltage grid connected system, than you’re probably going to want to go with a series or series-parallel combination depending on the number of solar panels you have.

    But for a simple reference in regards to how to connect solar panels together in either parallel or series wiring configurations, just remember that parallel wiring = more amperes, and series wiring = more voltage, and with the right type and combination of solar panels you can power just about any electrical device you may have in your home.

    For more information about Connecting Solar Panels Together in either series or parallel combinations, or to obtain more information about the different types of solar panels available, or to explore the advantages and disadvantages of using solar power in your home, then Click Here to order your copy from Amazon today and learn more about designing, wiring and installing off-grid photovoltaic solar electric systems in your home.

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    We hope this Connecting Solar Panels Together tutorial was useful and informative for you. Are you ready to share your thoughtsand experience with us and many others. Your Комментарии и мнения владельцев are always welcome, just post them in the section below.

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    0 Комментарии и мнения владельцев already about “ Connecting Solar Panels Together ”

    I have read on the web that there should be a diode (blocking reverse flow of current) inserted between PV panels arranged in parallel. I have two small 12v panels (50W 30W) and I want to chain them in parallel to get 80W @ 12v. Do I have to put a diode somewhere in the wiring between the panels and the battery? Or just between the two panels?

    Hi I have 4.2 kw controller(ups) and 8 solar panel of 545 watt each. each panel 48 volt. each panel current is 10 amp at its peak Now. i have a question How can i arrange these panels to get max output? If i put 6 panel in series and 2 panel in parallel then connect these together. what is my output ? I require max output Kindly guide me

    hello some advice please i have 4 x 235w panels voc 37v rated 29.5v to power 4 x 130 ah wet battery bank wired series and parallel via a 100amp mppt controller and 24v 6000w invertor would i be better off wiring the panels in parallel or series thanks for your help and advice

    Please I have 2 Panels 270Watts each, connected to a charge controller that charges a 12Volts 200AH battery. I just bought another 2 Panels 300Watts each to be connected together with the existing system. I am thinking if I pair 270W panel with 300 W panel in series before connecting them all in parallel will reduce the loss?

    We expect that there would be very little difference in the I-V characteristics between your 270W and 300W panels, as there is such a small difference in wattage, 270W compared to 300W. Thus the Vmp and Voc voltages would be very similar. But the Imp and Isc values would be more different. Then 2 x 270W in one series string, and 2 x 300W in a second series string, with both strings in parallel. That way the voltages would balance out but you would still get different branch currents relating to the wattages.

    Currently, I have a 24v system with 24v panels connected in parallel. I want to step down to 12v system without changing the 24v panels, I just want to buy one 12v panel and connect in parallel. 1) What is the effect of 12v panel besides reducing the voltage output of other 24v panels to 12v? 2) Would the 24v panels retain their qualities in case I return to the 24v system after a few years?

    1) It does not work like that. Your output would be around 18 volts and your 24 volt panels would be feeding current directly into the smaller 12 volt panel due to such a large mismatch. 2) Probably not, as they would deteriorate over time anyway, and would see your 12 volt panel as the load

    Ok. Can I step the 24v panels down to 12v using my PMT 12v/24v Charge control? I want to scale down to 12v without throwing my active panels into the bin.

    Hi If I got 2 x 200w Omega OSP201 Panels connected in series VOC – 22.2; SCC(A) – 8,6; VMP(v) – 18; Max VMP – 8,11 Connected to 2×180 amp/h batt in Paralel with 2000w Pure Sine inverter and 20 Amp Solar control charger. Is it the correct way? Thank you, I’m following

    I have 24 x 230 W 37 volt 7.8 Amp panels. In order to fit these panels into my all-in-one EGR 120/240 6000 inverter I have to have a 500 volt max. I believe the only way to meet the 500VOC max requirement, I would need to wire 12 panels in Series and 12 panels in Parallel giving me 12 x 7.8 = 93.6 amps and 37 volts in Parallel 12 x 37 Volts = 444 Volts and 7.8 Amps in Series Can I combine the 2 Arrays?

    12 panels in parallel with 12 panels in series, No. 12 panels in one series string equals 444 volts, and 2 series strings in parallel (12S2P) equals 15.6 (7.8 7.8) amperes.

    If I connect two 18v panels in series creating 36v output, then connect this array in parallel with two other 36v panels, if one of the 18v series panels is in shade, how will it affect the total output.

    The connection solar Panels was useful to me, so I am saying thank you, and hope to learn more from you

    Hi I have a few 70 volt solar panels and they are very low amperage, I want to Connect to batteries however don’t as yet have an inverter, how are inverters rated and are there inverters that will take high voltages and give 12volt battery Charging Outputs,? I see many 12 volt and 24 volt inverters but cant seem to find one that accepts 70 plus volts input, these panels were sold with LED lights and i was told to connect 3 lights to one panel and they will act as day time down lights but there is no voltage on the light fittings and was told less than 3 lights will be too little and the panels out put would blow them up, so I decided not to operate this way as it sounds unsafe instead I want to use the panels to Charge batteries but the High voltage output is Confusing as other panels I used had 6-12 volt output not 70 volts

    It seems you are confused. Solar Charge Controllers, also called Battery Charge Controllers take the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panel(s), and/or wind turbine generators and produce a standard output voltage of between 12 to 48 volts DC (depending on model) used to charge a single battery or a larger battery bank. The configuration and wattage of any connected pv panel, or array would depend on the DC input characteristics of the contorller. Inverters take the DC voltage and convert or invert (hence their name) it into AC mains voltage and power, either single-phase 240V or 3-phase for use in the home or to feed the incoming mains power. Thus you would have two different controllers, one to produce the required DC voltage, 12V, 24V, etc. from the panels and another to create the higher mains AC voltage for the home. Nowadays, there are all-in-one MPPT Solar Regulators or System Voltage Controllers which have both units within one controller. Again, the DC input and power rating of the regulator will decide how you configure your panels, or array.

    Thanks for that one last question the panels are 67.9v at 1.07 amps and 72.5 watts how is the best way to wire them all in Parallel, or 3 in series 3 in series then both sets of 3 in Parallel? I am thinking all 6 in Parallel from my Understanding is there a calculation for the best size Battery or number of Batteries that this will Charge? Thank you for your assistance

    If your panels are rated at 70 watts each, and you state you have 6. Then that gives a total of 6 x 70 = 420 watts. This 420 watts is ONLY available during “full sun” conditions, about 4 to 5 hours per day. Thus assuming 4 hours gives 4 x 420 = 1680 watt-hours per day. Since its a DC system, watts are equal to volt-amperes (VA) in this case. Thus you have 1680 VA per day max. Assuming a 12 volt system, that equates to 1680/12 = 140 amp-hours per day max. Assuming a 50% depth of charge per day, then you would need a 280 Amp-hour battery. That is, your battery discharges to 50% capacity each day, and your panels recharge it during the 4 hours of full sun. Clearly, system losses and efficiency are not considered here.

    I have two 100ah 12v batteries connected in parallel. I have a 100 watt thunderbolt solar kit connected to both batteries. I plan to add another 100w solar panel kit. Should I connect each solar kit to both batteries or connect one kit to a single battery and the other kit to the other battery?

    Solar kit implies panel and charge controller. Then it is not advisable to connect two or more charge controllers to the same battery terminals as they will compete against each other and the battery bank may not be charged or protected correctly. Instead connect all the pv panels to the input of one battery charge controller.

    not connect in paralel,you just connect your batteris in series and connect the pannels in series in order to increase the current,your system will run perfectly

    Incorrect information. Series connection increases voltage, not current. He has a 12 volt system, not a 24 volt system

    Hi there,I have 2x 330w in parallel with 36v,20a output.Can I run this through a 24v, 20amp. 440 watt voltage inverter/dropper/converter??

    Please bear with me, I man not a total newby, but I do still have a lot to learn about this… I am changing / adding to my RV solar system. It currently has a single panel that I think is 175 watt with a 30 amp PWM controller and 2 12-volt 100 AH RV batteries that were not properly maintained and need to be replaced. Controller and batteries will get changed out, as I change/add panels on the roof and upgrade the wiring to the controllers and battery bank. I want to build the system so I can add to it in equal increments as I discover just how much power I need and if needs change. (Unit not yet in my possession so I don’t know exactly how I will be consuming power.) My original plan was to build the system with three 200-watt panels and a 60 amp MPPT controller (or 2 panels and a 40 amp controller), keeping everything balanced and add to the system in these increments. I have plenty of room for controllers and batteries, with a fair amount of room on the roof and plan on using Tilt Brackets to maximize collector exposure This is where I fall down…. Panels in Series or Parallel? Parallel would give me 27 volts. Series would give me 81 volts. I would really like to stay with 12-volt system so I don’t have to change anything else in the RV, Can this be done with the higher voltage / lower current feeds from the panels? Will the controllers be able to take the higher voltage and adjust accordingly or should I go with the lower voltage and higher current? Also, I don’t yet know at what my Charger/Inverter is rated at so I may have to change that as well. At this point the only thing I have purchased is batteries that were removed from my previous RV’s system. These are FLA 6-volt GC2 batteries that were connected in series/parallel giving me 12 volts, 420 AH (allowing for a 50% draw-down), giving me 210 AH. I will eventually switch over to Li Batteries and add additional cells as the system increases I am considering 200 Watt panels, up to 2000 watts MAX. The manufacturers spec’s on these panels have a Voc of 27 volts, Short Circuit Current of 9.66 amps. In your opinion, would I be better to consider more panels with a lower wattage (100 watts) or continue with the 200 watt panels? This is a large RV and mostly Boondocking / Dry Camping expected for 1 night stays and up to 2 weeks or more. (I have a portable generator, but would prefer to use it only when necessary).

    best, solar, panels, homes, 2023

    The size of chosen panels would depend on the available installation space as 2 x 100W panels would take up about 40% more area than one single 200W panel. The configuration of your 2kW array would depend on the DC input characteristics of your charge controller. Higher voltage and lower current would be the preferred option as lower current means smaller diameter cables. Your 60 amp MPPT controller may have a DC input voltage of 150VDC, then your panels Voc of 27 volts would mean 5 panels in one series string (5 x 27 = 135V) and two parallel branches (5S2P) giving a Isc of 19.32 amperes (2 x 9.66) for your 2kW (10 x 200W) array. Clearly, you would need to consult your charge controllers specifications first.

    I have 12 – 250 Watt solar pannels. Voc 37.6 and Rated current 8.27 Amps I have a 80A MPPT solar charge controller wit a Max PV input 2000W (Max. PV Array OV). I Have 24V 3KVA, with input voltage 65-140VAC/95-140VAC. Wich would be the ideal way to set up the solar panels to produce the most for my battey bulk and inverter?

    We assume you have bought the solar items you have bought for a reason because you have some knowledge or have been previously advised. If not or you have no idea what you are doing but want us to tell you. Clearly, a 250W panel is for 24 volt battery charging. Thus 2000/24 = 83 amperes as you have stated. Then you need a 48 volt system with 6 branches of two panels per string. This would give a maximum array Voc of 75.2 volts, and a maximum array current of 50 amperes.

    I have two panel 545 watt and one panel 150 watt l have 2.8 kva inverter 24watt how I connect these panel serial or parallel.

    Clearly with such a large mismatch between panels, you cannot use the 150W panel with the two 545W panels.

    All is spoken and all is said ,but I just want to know we have six 150watts panels,a 60A charge controller and 4 200A batteries which right way would you recommend us to use in connecting the panels and the batteries /which installation style will give something that is better that we may be able to use a 240-300 volts inverter and 60 12volts bulbs

    You have 6 x 150 watt panels. Then you have a total of 900 watts maximum at full sun, no matter how you connect them. 150W panels are for charging 12 volt batteries, thus their Vmp is usually about 18 volts. 3 x 18 = 54 volts plus 25% for Voc equals about 68 volts. If your 60A charge controller can handle a maximum DC input of 68 volts, then 3 panels in a series string, and 2 parallel branches (3S2P). If not, 2S3P. Your 12 volt light bulbs will require a 12 volt supply from the 12 volt batteries. Then your 4 batteries are connected in parallel.

    If both solar panels (120w and 200w) have a charge controller fitted do I need to remove one of them to charge two 12v 105A batteries

    best, solar, panels, homes, 2023

    Each panel can be used to charge a single battery. But as the characteristics of each panel is different, each battery will charge at a different rate.

    or join the the wiring below the two controllers to the battery bank. in this way should one panel, controller or wiring fail, the other panel will carry the load

    Hi I have 8 solar panel of 545 watt each. each panel 48 volt. each panel current is 10 amp at its peak Now. i have a question How can i arrange these panels to get max output? If i put 6 panel in series and 2 panel in parallel then connect these together. what is my output ? I require max output Kindly guide me

    I have 3x 215 watt panels victron. using a 50amp victron controller i will be fusing a 50amp from controller to battery.can you tell me do i need to fuse each panel to controller or can i just use one fuse.which size what would you recommend series or parallel.many thanks.

    215 watt panels are generally for 24v systems, thus have an output voltage of around 36 volts. 215w/36v equals about 6 Amperes. 3 in series equals about 108 volts (check panel specs for max Voc). If you controller can handle upto 120VDC input go series at 6 amps. If not 3 in parallel at 36 volts, 18 amps at full sun. For series, obviously one fuse. For parallel, one fuse per branch (panel) if you want, or just one for the whole set.

    If I have two solar pannes of same voltage(18v×2) but different amperes(80w,120w) and I use two different charge controller on one battery of 150AH.will my connection add up as expected?

    Exploring the Options for Small Solar Panels

    Solar power has been gaining popularity in recent years, as people look for ways to reduce their carbon footprint and become more energy-efficient. While large solar panels are commonly used for powering homes and businesses, small solar panels are also available for a variety of purposes. From powering your phone to lighting your garden, small solar panels have many uses. In this article, we will explore your options for small solar panels.

    Portable Solar Chargers

    Portable solar chargers are perfect for anyone who spends a lot of time outdoors, or who wants to charge their devices on the go. These chargers can be used to power anything from smartphones to laptops, and they are compact and lightweight, making them easy to carry around. Some portable solar chargers also come with built-in batteries, allowing you to charge your devices even when the sun isn’t shining.

    When shopping for a portable solar charger, consider the size of the panel and the amount of power it can generate. Look for a charger with a high conversion rate, which means that it will be more efficient at converting sunlight into electricity.

    Solar-Powered Lights

    Solar-powered lights are an excellent way to add some light to your outdoor space without using any electricity. These lights use small solar panels to generate electricity during the day, which is stored in a battery. When the sun goes down, the lights turn on automatically, using the stored energy.

    There are many types of solar-powered lights available, including string lights, pathway lights, and even security lights. When shopping for solar-powered lights, consider the amount of sunlight your space gets, and choose lights with a battery capacity that can power the lights for the desired amount of time.

    Solar Water Pumps

    Solar water pumps are a great option for anyone who wants to keep their pond, fountain, or other water feature running without using any electricity. These pumps use solar panels to generate electricity, which is used to power the pump.

    When shopping for a solar water pump, consider the size of your water feature and the amount of water you need to move. Look for a pump with a high flow rate and a lift height that meets your needs.

    Solar-Powered Ventilation

    Solar-powered ventilation is an excellent way to keep your home cool without using any electricity. These ventilation systems use small solar panels to generate electricity, which is used to power the fan. The fan then circulates air through your home, keeping it cool and fresh.

    When shopping for a solar-powered ventilation system, consider the size of your home and the amount of ventilation you need. Look for a system with a high airflow rate and a low noise level.

    Solar-Powered Backpacks

    Solar-powered backpacks are perfect for anyone who loves to hike or spend time outdoors. These backpacks have built-in solar panels that can be used to charge your devices while you’re on the go. They are also great for emergency situations, as they allow you to generate power even when you’re away from an electrical outlet.

    When shopping for a solar-powered backpack, consider the size of the panel and the amount of power it can generate. Look for a backpack with a high conversion rate and a durable construction that can withstand the elements.


    Small solar panels are a great option for anyone who wants to reduce their carbon footprint and become more energy-efficient. Whether you’re looking for a portable charger or a way to power your outdoor lights, there are many options available. When shopping for a small solar panel, consider the size of the panel, the amount of power it can generate, and the specific needs of your application. With a little research, you can find the perfect solar panel for your needs and start enjoying the benefits of clean, renewable energy.

    Small Solar Panel

    Construct a small, portable solar panel that will charge two AA rechargeable batteries in a day or two. Use the batteries to make any battery-powered device solar powered.

    Step 1: Introduction

    Construct a small, portable solar panel that will charge two AA rechargeable batteries in a day or two. Use the batteries to make any battery-powered device solar powered. Or use the panel to directly power small DC electronics.

    The panel consists of eight 1×3 solar cells wired in series with a blocking diode mounted on a board and protected by clear plastic. In this configuration the panel provides about 250 milliamps at 4 volts, which will charge two batteries in a day or two, depending on the weather and the batteries’ capacity. Other solar cell configurations are possible to provide more or less power to, for instance, directly charge a 3.6 volt cell phone battery, or to provide a faster charge to AA batteries.

    There are a number of off-the shelf small solar panels available on the web, but building one yourself gives you the flexibility to configure it to provide exactly the voltage and amperage your project needs. And it could be cheaper.

    Step 2: Background

    My original goal was to use several small 1×3 solar cells I’d purchased a year ago to charge my cell phone. For my first panel I connected nine cells in series and very simply mounted them on a board with no cover. That generated enough electricity to directly charge my cell phone.

    However, it had several shortcomings. First, I found that I needed to charge the phone when the sun wasn’t shining. Second, when I wanted to receive calls the phone was often outside charging while I was inside. Third, the cells got dirty and one broke. Finally, because the circuit could run in either direction (no blocking diode), the cell phone battery would discharge to the panel when the was no light.

    My solution to these problems was increase flexibility by charging two AA batteries instead of the cell phone and to put the charged batteries into the Minty Boost to charge the phone. To better protect the cells I glued them to the backing board and covered them with a clear plastic sheet. A blocking diode prevents battery discharge.

    The inspiration for mounting the cells comes from otherpower.comI couldn’t find any other resources on the internet with details for creating your own solar panels, but there must be something out there.

    Step 3: Solar Cell Basics

    It helps to understand some fundamentals about solar cells before designing a panel. All common solar cells, like the multicrystal cells used in this instructable, produce 0.5 volts or so. That is, the front and back have a 0.5 volt difference. The size of the cell determines the amperage. A full-sized cell (6×6) could produce three amps, depending on its design, but smaller cells may produce only 250 milliamps or less.

    To increase the voltage of a panel, wire the cells in series. To increase the amperage, wire the cells in parallel.

    Step 4: Materials

    eight solar cells (I purchased multicrystal cells online. Try, for instance, Silicon Solar, Plastecs, eBay, or do a Google search.)

    ribbon wire (Flat wire commonly used to connect solar cells to one another. I purchased cells with the ribbon already attached to the front of each cell. You can connect with regular wire, but the flat ribbon is less likely to cause the cells to crack when mounted.)

    clear plastic (I used plastic that was 0.1 inch thick)

    battery holder for two AA batteries

    wood, about 1/2 inch thick panel

    adhesive (I used an adhesive/sealant intended for bathrooms, but silicon should work fine)

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