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11 Major Factors Affecting Solar Panel Efficiency. Average solar cell efficiency

11 Major Factors Affecting Solar Panel Efficiency. Average solar cell efficiency

    Comprehensive Guide to Solar Panel Types

    The push for renewable energy sources has led to a surge in solar energy use. In the past decade alone, the solar industry grew by almost 50%, buoyed by federal support such as the Solar Investment Tax Credit and strong commercial and industrial demand for clean energy.

    As the solar sector continues to rise, it’s worth studying the backbone of the solar industry: solar panels.

    This guide will illustrate the different types of solar panels available on the market today, their strengths and weaknesses, and which is best suited for specific use cases.

    What is a Solar Panel?

    Solar panels are used to collect solar energy from the sun and convert it into electricity.

    The typical solar panel is composed of individual solar cells, each of which is made from layers of silicon, boron and phosphorus. The boron layer provides the positive charge, the phosphorus layer provides the negative charge, and the silicon wafer acts as the semiconductor.

    When the sun’s photons strike the surface of the panel, it knocks out electrons from the silicon “sandwich” and into the electric field generated by the solar cells. This results in a directional current, which is then harnessed into usable power.

    The entire process is called the photovoltaic effect, which is why solar panels are also known as photovoltaic panels or PV panels. A typical solar panel contains 60, 72 or 90 individual solar cells.

    The 4 Main Types of Solar Panels

    There are 4 major types of solar panels available on the market today: monocrystalline, polycrystalline, PERC, and thin-film panels.

    Monocrystalline solar panels

    Also known as single-crystal panels, these are made from a single pure silicon crystal that is cut into several wafers. Since they are made from pure silicon, they can be readily identified by their dark black color. The use of pure silicon also makes monocrystalline panels the most space-efficient and longest-lasting among all three solar panel types.

    However, this comes at a cost — a lot of silicon is wasted to produce one monocrystalline cell, sometimes reaching over 50%. This results in a hefty price tag.

    Polycrystalline solar panels

    As the name implies, these come from different silicon crystals instead of one. The silicon fragments are melted and poured into a square mold. This makes polycrystalline cells much more affordable since there is hardly any wastage, and gives them that characteristic square shape.

    However, this also makes them less efficient in terms of energy conversion and space, since their silicon purity and construction are lower than monocrystalline panels. They also have lower heat tolerance, which means they are less efficient in high-temperature environments.

    Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC) panels

    PERC solar panels are an improvement of the traditional monocrystalline cell. This relatively new technology adds a passivation layer in the rear surface of the cell that enhances efficiency in several ways:

    • It reflects light back into the cell, increasing the amount of solar radiation that gets absorbed.
    • It reduces the natural tendency of electrons to recombine and inhibit the flow of electrons in the system.
    • It allows greater wavelengths of light to be reflected. Light waves over 1,180nm can’t be absorbed by silicon wafers and simply pass through, so they end up heating the cell’s metal back sheet and reduce its efficiency. The passivation layer reflects these higher wavelengths and stops them from heating up the back sheet.

    PERC panels allow greater solar energy collection in a smaller physical footprint, which makes them ideal for limited spaces. They are only slightly more expensive to produce than traditional panels, due to the added materials needed, but they can be manufactured on the same equipment, and can end up having a lower average cost per watt due to their efficiency.

    To get a better feel for the benefits of PERC panels, check out our blog 5 Important Benefits of PERC Solar Panels You Need to Know.

    Thin-film solar panels

    Thin-film panels are characterized by very fine layers that are thin enough to be flexible. Each panel does not require a frame backing, making them lighter and easier to install. Unlike crystalline silicon panels that come in standardized sizes of 60, 72, and 96-cell counts, thin-film panels can come in different sizes to suit specific needs. However, they are less efficient than typical silicon solar panels.

    Thin-Film Solar Panel Variations

    Unlike crystalline panels that use silicon, thin-film solar panels are made from different materials. These are:

    • Cadmium telluride (CdTe)
    • Amorphous silicon (a-Si)
    • Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS)

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe)

    CdTe has the same low-cost advantage as polycrystalline cells while possessing the lowest carbon footprint, water requirement, and energy payback time of all solar panels types. However, the toxic nature of cadmium makes recycling more expensive than other materials.

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si)

    Amorphous silicon panels (A-Si) derive their name from their shapeless nature. Unlike mono-and polycrystalline solar cells, the silicon is not structured on the molecular level.

    On average, an a-Si cell requires only a fraction of the silicon needed to produce typical silicon cells. This allows them to have the lowest production cost, at the expense of efficiency. This is why a-Si panels are suited for applications that require very little power, such as calculators.

    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS)

    CIGS panels use a thin layer of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium deposited on a glass or plastic backing. The combination of these elements results in the highest efficiency among thin-panel types, though still not as efficient as crystalline silicon panels.

    Solar Panel Types by Efficiency

    Among all panel types, crystalline solar panels have the highest efficiency.

    • Monocrystalline panels have an efficiency rating over 20%.
    • PERC panels add an extra 5% efficiency thanks to their passivation layer.
    • Polycrystalline panels hover somewhere between 15-17%.

    In contrast, thin-film panels are usually 2-3% less efficient than crystalline silicon. On average:

    • CIGS panels have an efficiency range of 13-15%.
    • CdTe ranges between 9-11%.
    • a-Si have the lowest efficiency at 6-8%.

    Solar Panel Types by Power Capacity

    Monocrystalline cells have the highest power capacity, thanks to their single-crystal construction that allows a higher output rating in a smaller package. Most monocrystalline panels can generate up to 300w of power capacity.

    Recent advances in solar technology have allowed polycrystalline panels to bridge the gap. A standard 60-cell polycrystalline panel is now capable of producing between 240-300w. However, monocrystalline panels still beat polycrystalline in terms of power capacity per cell.

    Because thin-film panels don’t come in uniform sizes, there is no standard measure of power capacity, and the capacity of one thin-film panel will differ from another based on its physical size. In general, given the same physical footprint, conventional crystalline panels output more power than a thin-film panel of the same size.

    Solar Panel Types by Cost

    Monocrystalline panels (or modules as they are technically known) carry a hefty price tag, due to its energy-intensive and inefficient manufacturing process with only a 50% yield for every silicon crystal.

    Polycrystalline modules are cheaper because they make use of the crystal fragments leftover from monocrystalline production, which results in a simpler manufacturing process and lower production costs.

    Among thin-film solar panels, CIGS is the most expensive, followed by CdTe and amorphous silicon. Apart from the lower acquisition cost, thin-film modules can be easier to install thanks to their lighter weight and flexibility, which lowers the cost of labor.

    While the total cost of residential systems has declined by more than 65% over the last decade, the soft cost of a system has actually risen from 58% of total system cost in 2014 to 65% in 2020.

    For more information about soft costs, check out our article on the soft costs in the solar industry. and what’s being done to reduce them.

    Panel (Module) type Average Cost per Watt
    PERC 0.32-0.65
    Monocrystalline 1 – 1.50
    Polycrystalline 0.70 – 1
    Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) 0.60 – 0.70
    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) 0.50 – 0.60
    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) 0.43 – 0.50

    Note that these figures don’t include the cost of installation and labor. With labor and other overhead factors, the total can rise to 2.50 to 3.50 per watt.

    Other Factors to Consider


    The temperature of a solar panel can affect its ability to generate energy. This loss of output is reflected through the temperature coefficient, which is a measure of the panel’s decrease in power output for every 1°C rise over 25°C (77°F).

    Monocrystalline and polycrystalline panels have a temperature coefficient between.0.3% / °C to.0.5% / °C, while thin-film panels are closer to.0.2% / °C. This means that thin-film panels can be a good option for hotter environments or places that experience more sunlight throughout the year.

    Fire rating

    The updated International Building Code of 2012 requires solar panels to match the fire rating of the roof where they are installed. This is to ensure that the modules do not accelerate the spread of flames in the event of a fire. (California goes one step further by requiring the whole PV system, which includes the racking system, to have the same fire rating).

    As such, solar panels now carry the same classification rating as roofs:

    Class A

    • effective against severe fire test exposure
    • flame spread should not exceed 6 feet
    • required for wildland-urban interface areas, or areas with high fire severity and wildfire risk

    Hail rating

    UL 1703 and UL 61703 standards address hail storms, by dropping 2-inch solid steel spheres on solar panels from a height of 51 inches, and by firing 1-inch ice balls on PV panels with a pneumatic cannon to simulate hail impacts.

    Because of their thicker construction, crystalline panels can withstand hail hitting at speeds of up to 50mph, while thin-film solar panels carry a lower rating due to their thin and flexible nature.

    Hurricane rating

    While there is no formal solar classification rating for hurricanes, the Department of Energy recently expanded its recommended design specifications for solar panels to safeguard against severe weather.

    The new recommendations include:

    • Modules with the highest ASTM E1830-15 rating for snow and wind loading in both the front and back.
    • Fasteners with true locking capability based on DIN 65151 standard
    • The use of through-bolting modules with locking fasteners instead of clamping fasteners
    • The use of 3-frame rail systems for improved rigidity and support against twisting
    • Tubular frames over open-shaped C channels
    • Perimeter fencing around PV systems to slow down wind forces

    Light-Induced Degradation (LID)

    LID is a performance loss commonly seen in crystalline panels during the first few hours of sun exposure. This happens when sunlight reacts with oxygen traces left over from the manufacturing process, which affects the silicon lattice structure.

    The LID loss is directly tied to the manufacturing quality and can range from 1-3%.

    Summary: Solar Panel Types Compared

    PERC Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Thin-film
    Initial Cost Highest High Middle Highest to lowest:

    So, Which Solar Panel Type Should You Use?

    As crystalline and thin-film panels have their own pros and cons, the choice of solar panel ultimately comes down to your specific property and condition settings.

    Limited Space

    Those living in a dense area with limited space should opt for highly efficient monocrystalline modules to make the most of the physical space and maximize utility savings. If budget permits, going for PERC panels can lower energy generation costs even more in the long run.

    Large Properties

    Those with a sufficiently larger property can save on upfront costs by using polycrystalline solar panels, where a bigger panel footprint can offset the lower panel efficiency. However, a larger footprint could also mean added labor costs, so it’s not necessarily cheaper to get a higher quantity of less expensive panels. While the initial cost may be low, it may eventually be offset by reduced efficiency and higher operating expenses in the long term.

    As for thin-film solar panels, these are best suited for locations where the heavy and labor-intensive installation of crystalline silicon is not feasible. Such locations can include commercial buildings with tight spaces or thin roofs; compact spaces such as recreational vehicles and watercraft; and areas that require flexible installation instead of rigid paneling.

    Keep in mind that solar panels are designed for long-term installation, which can be as long as 25 years. So whatever type you choose to go with, make sure to do your homework to ensure that it’s the best option for your needs.

    Major Factors Affecting Solar Panel Efficiency

    Researchers are continuously working towards making better and more efficient solar panels with each passing year. There has been a remarkable improvement in the manufacturing and working of solar panels in the past decade. You can select better and more efficient panels with the latest technology. But factors affecting solar panel efficiency have increased and remained in the picture always. While working with solar panels I came across the question can you increase the efficiency of solar panels numerous times. The answer to this is in your hands, come find out.

    What is Solar Panel Efficiency?

    The average energy output of a given area is termed solar panel efficiency. The overall amount of energy generated by solar panels during the day is their efficiency. It is calculated by multiplying incidental radiation flux or sunlight received on that particular surface area by the size of solar panels in square meters. The received value is then divided by the maximum wattage of panels which is then multiplied by 100 thus efficiency percentage is received.

    Sunlight received per square meter = 1000 watts

    Area of Solar panels (2) = 2000 (10002)

    Maximum wattage = 400 watts

    Efficiency percentage = 400/2000100

    Standard testing conditions measure the output of the solar panel during normal weather conditions in a particular area. But there are several other factors influencing the efficiency of solar panels.

    What are the Factors Affecting Solar Panel Efficiency?

    Solar panel efficiency isn’t solely dependent on the sun but there are many other factors affecting solar panel efficiency. Let’s learn about all these factors in detail.

    major, factors, affecting, solar

    Climatic Conditions

    Another major impact on efficiency is due to climatic conditions. There is a misconception that production decreases during snowfall or winter, but this is not the case. Due to the reflective qualities of snow, the concentration of sunlight increases, thus improving solar irradiance. This is only possible if your solar panels are not buried under snow.

    Where cold conditions benefit and increase efficiency extremely hot weather may decrease efficiency. Solar panels under extreme and strong sunlight cannot work efficiently and their efficiency even decreases with an increase after a certain temperature.


    Solar panels have a lifespan of more than 20 years during which they are subjected to lots of internal and external conditions affecting their overall efficiency. In the meantime, panels work accurately and efficiently. But after years also they continue to generate electricity but each year some percentage of their efficiency will be lost. But experts say that solar panels work great as they age in comparison to when they were new. Well, this depends on the quality and type of solar panels you use.

    Energy Conversion Efficiency

    From the total amount of sunlight falling on solar panels, a certain percentage of it is converted by the panels. This percentage of conversion is known as energy conversion efficiency. Yes, not all sunlight that falls on the panels is converted into energy. In fact, this ratio is also influenced by factors like wavelength, reflection, and temperature.


    The angle of placing the panels is equally important for increased or decreased efficiency. South-facing solar panels tend to be more efficient. However, depending on the location of your house, solar panels can be faced east or west. South-facing panels have the leverage to absorb sunlight till evenings and rays touch the panels more directly than other orientations. Overall, efficiency is influenced by their orientation along with the location of your house. This is one of the factors affecting solar panel efficiency.


    Regular maintenance of solar panels is necessary for them to work properly. Without proper maintenance and regular check, up by experts, and replacement of small panel parts, if needed, efficiency will decrease over time. Regular system checks are involved in purchase agreements. Other than this, proper cleaning of the surface of solar panels also reduces their efficiency.


    Regular usage influences efficiency and causes it to degrade faster. Operations like monitoring and controlling the performances of solar panels influence their efficiency and help in retaining it for longer periods. Also, carrying out operations to improve the overall conditions of solar panels positively influences efficiency at large.


    Sunlight is an essential ingredient, but extreme temperatures with excessively bright sun shining over the panels are of the least use. It is assumed that more sunlight means more power generation, but this is not the case. Extreme temperatures and sunlight harm the panels and their efficiency by shifting the properties of semiconductors that increase the current but decrease the voltage. It also is the reason for the reduced lifespan of modules and their components. Proper thermal management positively influences the efficiency of the modules.


    Solar panels are made from silicon and doped in boron and phosphorus, which gives them negative and positive charges. These coatings make the surface shiny and reflective. But more reflection means less absorption, leading to less energy generation.


    The efficiency of solar panels is susceptible to shading either partially or totally. It influences the overall capability of solar panels and the amount of energy they deliver. Series connection of solar panels enables them to generate higher voltage, thus is appropriate for electricity generation. But this is not applicable when cells are shaded as it would affect the current traveling through the entire module reducing the overall efficiency of the panels. To mitigate the loss, diodes are used and wired parallel to solar cells, which allows string connecting solar cells to generate electricity at reduced voltage.


    This term covers snow, leaves, dirt, debris, animal droppings, and dust on the surface of solar panels. With the increase in soiling of solar panels, their overall performance decreases leading to reduced efficiency as a sufficient amount of sunlight cannot reach the surface of the panels.

    Sun Intensity

    Another factor affecting solar panel efficiency is the amount of radiation or solar energy falling on solar panels known as the intensity of the sun. Intensity is determined by the angle and location of the sun in the sky. The inclination and intensity of the sun are influenced by your region also, which overall influences the efficiency of solar panels.

    Can You Increase the Efficiency of Solar Panels?

    After learning about the possible reasons and factors responsible for the loss of efficiency of solar panels, many people consider it a timely process that is bound to happen. But there are some aware people like you who ask can you increase the efficiency of solar panels. To which I replied, yes, of course, it is possible. Here are the ways in how to improve solar panel efficiency?

    Prefer High Quality Solar Panels

    The efficiency of solar panels depends on the type of photovoltaic cells and technology. Presently, monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and thin-film panels are available. Mono panels have the highest efficiency which makes them a bit more expensive than poly panels that are slightly less efficient than monocrystalline panels. But thin-film panels are the least efficient yet the cheapest. So, the best way to get high efficiency from your solar panels is to get one with top efficiency ratings.

    Go for Better Technology

    After learning about factors affecting solar panel efficiency, it is better to know about ways to improve efficiency too. Not all panels are made with the same technology, but researchers have developed newer technologies for better and more efficient solar panels.

    a) Half-cut cell: Traditionally used silicon cells are cut into two halves with a laser and then wired together. These cells are known as half-cut cells or twin cells. With this technology, both the durability and performance of the module is improved.

    b) High-concentrated photovoltaic cells (CPV): Solar panels with CPV are manufactured with the principle of focusing sunlight onto extremely high-efficiency solar cells to reduce direct purchase costs. Average solar panels have the highest efficiency levels up to 22% but cells with concentrated photovoltaic cells can reach efficiency levels of 46%.

    c) Integrated solar roofs: Traditional roofs are replaced with a seamless solar panels roof structure. This includes the installation of more panels within limited space that increases energy output.

    d) Mono PERC modules: It is an advanced version of monocrystalline solar panels with a passivated layer added to the rear of the module. This layer allows more light absorption, further resulting in more power generation.

    e) Multi-busbar technology: Busbars are silver strings running through solar panels carrying direct current (DC). Increasing the number of busbars reduces transportation time between ribbons of solar cells which further increases the output.

    Choose Trustworthy and Expert Installers

    Improperly installed solar panels will logically have less or no power generation at all. Make sure to hire an expert installer for this purpose who understands the factors affecting the efficiency of solar panels and works accordingly. An expert will be aware of the proper angle and orientation of panels along with knowing how to fix structural issues if they arise during installation.

    Allow Air Flow Gaps

    To overcome the damage done by factors affecting solar panel efficiency try this method. Overheating is the killer of electrical appliances and a possible cause of reduced efficiency. The process of energy generation in solar panel systems is inversely proportional to the temperature of solar panels. Some surfaces like roofing sheets or tin sheds tend to heat up quickly, therefore, appropriate spacing must be maintained between the roof and panels. This will provide easy airflow and the panels will not get overheated.

    Clean the Panels Properly

    Since panels are the most essential part of the entire system, efficiency is influenced when they are unclean. Solar panels do not require frequent maintenance but careful cleaning once every 6 months or 1 year is mandatory. With this energy generation will improve drastically because water spots, dust, debris, and other external factors collected on panels reduce their efficiency.

    Note: Make sure cleaning is done on days with normal temperatures when the panel temperature is not high otherwise it can lead to micro cracks. This will be the reason behind the huge efficiency loss.

    Avoid Shadows

    Full exposure for the max hours during the day is required for effective power generation which is brought down if panels are installed in shadowed areas. Therefore, before installation ensure there is no shadow from water tanks, pergolas, or other things on the roof.

    Choose Shade Tolerance Panels

    In case it is not possible to avoid shadowed areas you have another option to maintain and increase the efficiency of the solar panel system. Choose panels with shading tolerance for optimum performance as they are manufactured for such situations.

    major, factors, affecting, solar

    Choose Right Wiring

    There are 3 types of wiring for solar panels, namely parallel, series, and mix. A parallel connection increases the overall current, a series connection of solar panels increases overall voltage, and a mixed pattern of both connections gives you higher wattage. Choosing the right connection pattern will increase the overall efficiency of solar panels by providing the right amount of supply of voltage or current as required. It will help to overcome the factors affecting solar panel efficiency to a large extent.

    Schedule Preventive Checks

    For this purpose, engineers will check the modules and components to make sure they all are in good working condition. They are skilled in noticing any discrepancies leading to reduced efficiency in the panel output which may go unnoticed otherwise. On your end, you can do the following:

    • Check power output through an online monitoring system, regularly.
    • Keep track of daily energy produced by the system.
    • Troubleshoot in case of minor issues.
    • If any major issue occurs, contact the support team.

    Leverage from Rebates

    Governments offer tax rebates and credits to individuals, businesses, and industries at the state, local, and federal levels. Also, local utility houses may also offer incentives for new installations. You can increase the efficiency of your solar panel system by installing new or more panels and these rebate and incentive measures are useful.

    Solar Concentrators

    It is a device that helps better the concentration of absorbed solar energy by increasing concentration in smaller areas on the panels with the help of large mirrors. These results increased levels of efficiency resulting in more energy production.

    What Ways Leads to Solar Panel Efficiency Improvements Over Time?

    You can increase the efficiency of solar panels by following the measures mentioned above. But maintaining this requires a better understanding of the ways leading to solar panel efficiency improvements over time. On industry levels, regular advances and improvements in photovoltaic technology over time are the main reason behind efficiency improvements over time. In recent years, the average conversion efficiency of solar panels has increased from 15% to more than 21%.

    Since two main factors determining the efficiency of solar panels are: the efficiency of photovoltaic cells (based on silicon type and cell design), and total panel efficiency (based on configuration, panel size, and cell layout). In case you want to overcome efficiency loss over time, you can increase the panel size. It will create a large surface area for more sunlight absorption.

    How Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency with Mirrors is Possible?

    Among the factors affecting solar panel efficiency angle of the rays of the sun matters the most, here is how you can improve it with mirrors. Many solar modules use flat mirrors for increasing efficiency by focusing sunlight on the panels throughout the day. This is done in the following ways:

    Redirect sunlight with mirrors: Place mirrors around the panels at such angles that sunlight is directed towards the panels. Track the position of the sun throughout the day and then place the mirrors at particular angles that work.

    Sunlight works with mirrors: Due to the reflective surfaces of mirrors, sunlight bounces off and lands on the nearest solid material in front of them, solar panels. Ensure the mirrors are not placed under or near shadow.

    Types of mirrors to use: For better and increased efficiency of panels, select the right type of mirrors.

    • Use large mirrors, at least 2. This will help in better tracking of the sun throughout the day and will add more surface area for reflection.
    • Use polished metals instead of mirrors if you are afraid of breakage.
    • Decide the number and size of mirrors according to the size of the solar panel system.

    Are Mirrors Dangerous to Use for Redirecting Sunlight?

    Yes, to some extent using mirrors can be dangerous if used without proper precautions. Here is a list of some common dangers of using mirrors with solar panels.

    • Risk of potential harm to solar panels
    • Possibility of breaking the mirrors
    • Threat of fire

    However, you can avoid these dangers to some extent in the following ways:

    • Reflecting too much light on solar panels overheats them, thus raising their overall temperature. It overall affects the efficiency
    • It is hard to avoid a situation where the mirrors could break because a falling branch, storm, or baseball can easily damage them. Thus, it is advised to check them regularly for any early signs of damage or cracks.
    • Align mirrors carefully at such angles that the reflected light falls on solar panels and not on the house or grass. This will reduce the risk of fire.

    Well, factors affecting solar panel efficiency are easy to notice and their impact from them can be reduced with proper measures. There are ways to improve solar panel efficiency because solar panels are here to stay, and it is better to maintain them accordingly.

    Olivia is committed to green energy and works to help ensure our planet’s long-term habitability. She takes part in environmental conservation by recycling and avoiding single-use plastic.

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    An In-Depth Look at the Different Types of Solar Panels

    Since solar panels can last twenty-five years or more, your panel choices now can impact your cost savings and solar energy production in the future. Selecting the right panel is a great way to tailor your new solar system to your energy needs and budget. We’ll first address what efficiency is in regards to solar and how it’s important, and then we’ll address the various solar panel types to help you choose the perfect one for your situation.

    What Is Solar Efficiency?

    Solar panel technology is one of the fastest-developing areas of the renewable energy sector. Every year, new materials, manufacturing techniques, and designs push the boundaries of panel efficiency. This means that homeowners have never had a wider selection of options when it comes to solar panels.

    Solar panel materials and designs can vary, but all panels serve the same purpose. Using special materials, solar panels generate electrons when exposed to light, and these electrons are then converted to electricity for your home. The efficiency of a solar panel refers to the amount of electricity the panel generates from light. Most panels fall somewhere between 9% and 20% efficiency. 1 The rest of the energy is lost as heat. Still, the average solar panel is efficient enough to be reasonably cost effective.

    Efficiency differs between different panel designs, and highly efficient panels often come at a greater cost. However, you’ll need to find the best value for your dollar when considering the immediate and long-term priorities of your system—and it may not be the most efficient panel available.

    What Are the Different Types of Solar Panels?

    As said before, solar panels vary broadly in their design and quality, even within a single manufacturer’s line. However, most panels fall into one of three categories: monocrystalline, polycrystalline, or thin film. These three types of panels don’t share the same efficiency rates or physical characteristics, but none of the three is a clear winner in every category. Each has its own advantages and drawbacks.

    Of all solar panels, 90% are made using silicon as the photovoltaic material. 2 Silicon is a stable, durable material that is easy to access and very efficient. Both monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels use silicon. But thin-film solar panels are made from other photovoltaic materials, giving them different properties from traditional, silicon-based panels. Below, we’ll dive into more detail for each panel type.

    Monocrystalline Solar Panels

    Monocrystalline solar panels are the most efficient solar panels—they use a special manufacturing technique to get the most out of silicon, the parent material. In a monocrystalline panel, silicon ingots of very high purity are cut into thin wafers which are mounted in a grid shape. The panel itself appears a dark black, and each individual silicon wafer has rounded corners, giving these panels a unique look that is easy to distinguish.

    Because the silicon ingots used in the manufacturing of monocrystalline panels have a very high purity rating, they are exceptional at producing electricity, which results in the high efficiency ratings we mentioned earlier. The best of these panels carry an initial efficiency rating of 21.5%. 3 They also require little space and perform better than other panels in low light.

    The biggest drawback of monocrystalline panels is their high cost; these premium panels can be significantly more expensive than other panel varieties, although costs can vary considerably across different manufacturers and panel designs. Monocrystalline solar panels also produce more waste when they’re manufactured due to the more cylindrical nature of the silicon ingots—the edges of each wafer are discarded as waste during the manufacturing process.

    Polycrystalline Solar Panels

    Manufacturing polycrystalline cells is quite efficient, which dramatically cuts costs to make these much cheaper to produce than monocrystalline cells. Polycrystalline panels use melted silicon, which is poured and cut into perfectly square wafers. This melting process uses just about all the material, eliminating abundant waste during manufacturing.

    While these panels are reasonably efficient—usually falling between 13% and 16% efficiency—they rarely match the efficiency of monocrystalline panels, 4 and they don’t perform as well in high-heat or in low-light conditions. Polycrystalline panels also tend to be larger, and their shimmering blue color can be less aesthetically pleasing than thin-film and monocrystalline panels.

    Thin-Film Solar Panels

    Thin-film solar cells are not made from silicon like other panel varieties. These solar panels use alternative photovoltaic mediums that are deposited in a thin layer over a substrate. This unique structure allows for some distinctive panel characteristics. Thin-film solar panels are most often manufactured from cadmium telluride (CdTe), amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium gallium selenide (CIS/CIGS), or organic photovoltaic cells (OPC).

    While not quite as efficient as polycrystalline or monocrystalline panels—with a median efficiency of 15% or 16%—thin-film panels are very easy to manufacture and can be produced using a flexible substrate, broadening their applications. 5 Thin-film solar cells are also very efficient in low-light and high-temperature conditions, and they can be very visually appealing in applications where traditional solar panels would stand out.

    Thin-film solar cell technologies have several drawbacks that have limited their use, especially in the residential sector. In addition to their low efficiency ratings, these solar cells have large space requirements, making them impractical for most roof layouts. They can also be less stable, degrading over a shorter time period than traditional panels.

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) cells show the greatest potential for thin-film solar panels. This material is the only variety of thin-film solar panel to have surpassed traditional panels in cost efficiency, and several very recent breakthroughs in efficiency are opening new doors for development that may make CdTe panels even less expensive. Their simple and efficient manufacturing process could lead to a new generation of solar panels that use less materials and energy when produced, making solar power even greener.

    Where Is Residential Solar Headed?

    Solar panel development is a rapidly evolving field. New technologies are being developed each year that offer increased solar efficiency, faster and cheaper manufacturing, and better long-term durability.

    The newest technology in the solar market is the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) panel. Developed by the GW School of Engineering and Science, CPV panels shatter previous barriers to solar efficiency with a whopping 44.5% conversion rate. 6 Using crystalline lenses, these panels FOCUS sunlight onto very tiny photovoltaic cells that are stacked on top of each other. As concentrated sunlight passes through multiple photovoltaic cells, several wavelengths of light are captured, resulting in the impressive efficiency rating.

    Right now, CPV technology is too expensive to mass-produce for consumers. However, breakthroughs like CPV panels are frequent—the next generation of solar technology might soon be found on the roof of your home.

    Which Solar Panels Work Best for Your Home?

    Choosing the solar panel that’s right for you depends on the characteristics you value most. Each solar panel variety excels for a certain niche, and their varying features can help you tailor your system to your energy needs.

    Monocrystalline Panels

    Characteristics: high cost, high efficiency, high environmental footprint

    For homes with limited roof space or partial shading, monocrystalline panels are a strong choice. These panels produce the most electricity using the smallest amount of roof space. They work well in adverse conditions, making them ideal for customers in extreme climates. They’re also a great choice for homeowners who value long-term savings over lower initial cost.

    Polycrystalline Panels

    Characteristics: moderate cost, moderate efficiency, moderate environmental footprint

    If the initial cost of your solar system is your biggest barrier, polycrystalline panels offer the best bang for your buck. These panels won’t be quite as efficient, but their lower initial cost can help you generate solar electricity sooner, rather than later. Their manufacturing process also produces less waste than monocrystalline panels, making them attractive to environmentally conscious homeowners.

    Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Characteristics: low cost, low efficiency, low environmental footprint

    Thin-film panels are attractive for customers with no space constraints and a tight budget, since they’re more cost-effective than silicon panels. Ground-mounted thin-film solar systems are common and often placed in large fields or open spaces. Thin-film panels are also a good choice if the environmental costs of manufacturing are a major concern. CdTe cells are the technology to watch for in the future of solar panel development.

    Other Options to Consider

    While panel materials dictate most of a solar panel’s characteristics, there is still a great deal of variety from panel to panel. Look closely at the manufacturer’s efficiency ratings, warranties, and other design elements—like micro-inverters or mounting systems without racks—when choosing between solar panels. These design elements can make a big difference when it comes to matching a panel to your energy usage, your home’s roof specifications, and your budget. Look to your local solar installation experts to guide you through the process of panel selection and ensure you’ll be happy with your choice for decades after you install your system.

    • Energy Informative, “Which Solar Panel Type Is Best? Mono- vs. Polycrystalline vs. Thin Film”
    • Energy Environmental Science, “High-Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Status and Perspectives”
    • Energy Informative, “Which Solar Panel Type Is Best? Mono- vs. Polycrystalline vs. Thin Film”
    • Energy Informative, “Which Solar Panel Type Is Best? Mono- vs. Polycrystalline vs. Thin Film”
    • EnergySage, “Thin Film Solar Panels: Do They Make Sense for Residential?”
    • Tech Xplore, “Scientists Design Solar Cell That Captures Nearly All Energy of Solar Spectrum”

    How Hot Do Solar Panels Get? Effect of Temperature on PV Panel Efficiency

    Imagine one of those searing hot days when all you can do is to sip a margarita somewhere in the shade. How would you perform on a day like that if you were asked to run a marathon? Not that well, right? Our body functions the best when the temperature is within our optimum range. Beyond this range we have to work much harder to maintain our performance level.

    As surprising as it may sound, the same principle applies even to photovoltaic solar panels and their capacity to generate electricity!

    The effect of temperature on PV solar panel efficiency

    Most of us would assume that stronger and hotter the sun is, the more electricity our solar panels will produce. But that’s not the case. One of the key factors affecting the amount of power we get from a solar system is the temperature. Although the temperature doesn’t affect the amount of sunlight a solar cell receives, it does affect how much power is produced.

    Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, like the most used crystalline silicon. Semiconductors are sensitive to temperature changes. Temperatures above the optimum levels decrease the open circuit voltage of solar cells and their power output, while colder temperatures increase the voltage of solar cells.

    The output of most solar panels is measured under Standard Test Conditions (STC) – this means a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius or 77 degrees Fahrenheit. The test temperature represents the average temperature during the solar peak hours of the spring and autumn in the continental United States [1].

    According to the manufacture standards, 25 °C or 77 °F temperature indicates the peak of the optimum temperature range of photovoltaic solar panels. It is when solar photovoltaic cells are able to absorb sunlight with maximum efficiency and when we can expect them to perform the best.

    The solar panel output fluctuates in real life conditions. It is because the intensity of sunlight and temperature of solar panels changes throughout the day. What interests us in this case is how does the temperature affect solar panel efficiency in real life. Let’s break it down.

    What happens when the temperature of solar panels increases?

    If you have photovoltaic solar panels installed at home or plan to get some in the near future, it’s useful to have a good understanding about the difference between the energy of electrons at a low energy state and electrons in the excited state, because this difference accounts for the power output produced by solar panels.

    In a solar cell, you can find electrons bound at a low energy state. When these electrons receive extra energy, they enter a new state – known as the excited state – which allows them to break the bond and move. Electrons in the excited state can participate in conduction. The extra energy that elevates them to the excited state comes from two different sources – from light (sunlight) or from heat.

    How much power is produced by a solar cell depends on how big is the energy difference (voltage) between these two states. Increase in temperature affects the semiconductor material parameters by increasing the energy of bound electrons. This means that the energy difference to achieve the exited state is smaller, which results in reduced power output and efficiency of solar panels [2].

    When solar panels absorb sunlight, their temperature rises because of the sun’s heat. The common material used in solar cells, crystalline silicon, does not help to prevent them from getting hot either. As a great conductor of heat, silicon actually speeds up the heat building in solar cells on hot sunny days.

    In a nutshell: Hotter solar panels produce less energy from the same amount of sunlight.

    Luckily, the effect of temperature on solar panel output can be calculated and this can help us determine how our solar system will perform on summer days. The resulting number is known as the temperature coefficient.

    Solar panel temperature coefficient

    The temperature coefficient tells us the rate of how much will solar panel efficiency drop when the temperature will rise by one degree Celsius (1.8 °F).

    For example, when the temperature coefficient is minus 0.5 percent, it means that efficiency decreases by 0.5 percent for every degree above 25 °C (or every 1.8 degrees above 77 °F).

    Solar panels from different manufacturers will vary in their temperature coefficients. That is why all solar panel manufacturers provide a temperature coefficient value (Pmax) along with their product information.

    In general, most solar panel coefficients range between minus 0.20 to minus 0.50 percent per degree Celsius. The closer this number is to zero, the less affected the solar panel is by the temperature rise.

    If you want to find out which solar panels have the best temperature coefficient available today, we recommend checking out our recent report on the best solar panels for home use.

    How hot do solar panels get? Can they overheat?

    The maximum temperature solar panels can reach depends on a combination of factors such as solar irradiance, outside air temperature, position of panels and the type of installation, so it is difficult to say the exact number.

    Generally, solar panels are made of dark-colored silicon cells (black or dark blue), covered by a sheet of glass and framed in metal.

    Silicon and metal are good conductors of heat, contributing to faster buildup of heat inside solar cells. Even though, solar panel manufacturers and installers apply mechanisms to prevent solar panel overheating, in extremely hot conditions, the energy output of solar panels might decline significantly.

    In summer 2017, The Times published an article discussing the problem of Qatar being too hot for photovoltaic solar panels. According to the article, the combination of temperatures rising up to 50 °C (122 °F) with dust reduced solar panel power output down to less than 40 percent.

    What can you do to stop your panels from getting too hot?

    Being aware of the effect higher temperature has on the energy output, most certified installers take steps to support natural cooling of solar systems.

    A good practice for maximum efficiency is leaving at least a six-inch space between roof and panels to allow air circulation from both sides. But attaching your panels too far from the roof is not always a good idea. If the gap is too big, debris of leaves and twigs could accumulate underneath the array and cause damage to your roof or panels.

    If you live in a hot climate, you should consider ground-mounted solar panels, because this way they get the most airflow to keep their temperature lower.

    According to estimates, the temperature difference between the ground-mounted and roof attached solar panels can make up to 10 °C (50 °F) at the same location [3].

    The best option is to get solar panels with temperature coefficient as close to zero as possible. The difference in total power output throughout the year can be significant.

    For example, if your solar panels have a coefficient of minus 0.4 percent, their output on hot days will drop nearly twice that much compared to the output of a panel with a coefficient of only minus 0.2 percent per one degree Celsius.

    White or light-colored roofing also helps to lower the temperature around your panels, since these colors reflect sunlight more and do not get heated up like dark roofing.

    While above mentioned points involve passive cooling methods, some people opt even for active cooling systems.

    For example, fans that blow air over panels, or circulating cold water which absorbs the heat from the panels and is then utilized in the household for showering or heating the building [4].

    A side note: Be cautious about hosing down your panels during the hottest part of the day! It could make the glass crack and irreversibly damage your solar panels. The systems with water cooling do not expose solar panels to such a sudden temperature shock like you hosing them down would.

    How does cold temperature affect solar panel output?

    You may have heard people doubting solar panel performance in cold weather. Some may even think that solar panels stop working when it’s freezing outside. None of these statements is true.

    Solar panels actually love colder temperatures on sunny days. The open circuit voltage produced by solar cells on cold days increases and may rise even 20 percent above the values obtained during the standard testing at 25 degrees Celsius. This means that solar panels will produce more power in an hour during the cold and sunny weather. The problem comes with the monthly production.

    On average, photovoltaic solar panels still produce up to 80 percent more energy during the summer months than in winter. The main reasons are (as you may have guessed) shorter periods of sunlight per day and more days with heavy clouds in winter. It is the sunlight energy that is limited in winter, not temperature.

    The angle of solar panels affects how well will solar cells utilize the sunlight. In winter, the sun is lower in the sky and sunlight is diffused over a larger area, whereas in summer, the sunlight hitting your solar panels is more concentrated. In order to get the best energy output in winter, the angle may need some adjustments to capture more light. In general, solar installers recommend 45 degrees angle. This angle also helps to prevent snow buildup on the panels.

    Additional negative factors, reducing efficiency of solar panels in winter, are snow and ice. Solar panels are resistant. They do not get easily damaged by ice. It just takes some time for solar cells to defrost after a freezing night. During the time when the first sun rays shine on your solar panels, their efficiency is reduced, as the ice or snow blocks some of the sunlight that hits them. The time of unobstructed sunlight is then shorter, and you will get overall less power in winter months.

    Before you decide on a solution that would work the best for you, do your research well. As you can see, there are already options to perform under different conditions and some help you to save money – even on production of warm water.

    If none of them look appealing to you at the moment, do not despair. We live in the era of an amazing development in the solar energy industry.

    Just as we speak many scientists are working on tackling issues of solar panel efficiency and performance optimization.

    Scientists from the Stanford University have already pioneered a concept of “self-cooling” solar cells, which will be able to re-direct the heat from the cell’s surface. This design might be just one of many future solutions to tackle the problem of solar cell overheating.

    So, let’s enjoy this solar revolution.

    What is the output of a solar panel?

    Most solar panels on the market in 2022 produce between 250 and 400 watts of power. You might come across these solar panel output numbers from your solar installation quote, which will typically include “245W”, “300W”, or “345W” next to the name of the panel. They are all referring to a solar panel’s wattage, capacity and power output.

    major, factors, affecting, solar

    How to calculate how much energy a solar panel produces

    All solar panels are rated by the amount of DC (direct current) power they produce under standard test conditions. Solar panel output is expressed in units of watts (W) and represents the panel’s theoretical power production under ideal sunlight and temperature conditions. Wattage is calculated by multiplying volts x amps where volts represent the amount of force of the electricity and amperes (amps) refer to the aggregate amount of energy used.

    Most home solar panels on the market today have power output ratings ranging from 250 to 400 watts, with higher power ratings generally considered preferable to lower power ratings. Pricing in solar is typically measured in dollars per watt (/W), and your total solar panel wattage plays a significant part in the overall cost of your solar system.

    For example, if you are getting 5 hours of direct sunlight per day in a sunny state like California you can calculate your solar panel output this way: 5 hours x 290 watts (an example wattage of a premium solar panel) = 1,450 watts-hours, or roughly 1.5 kilowatt-hours (kWh). Thus, the output for each solar panel in your array would produce around 500-550 kWh of energy per year.

    What factors determine solar panel output?

    Before calculating the amount of energy a solar panel can produce, it’s important to understand the two key factors that determine its power output: cell efficiency and solar panel size.

    Let’s assess each factor separately to understand them a bit better.

    Solar panel efficiency

    Of all the metrics to look at when shopping for solar panels, efficiency is one of the most important. The higher a panel’s efficiency is, the more power it can produce. Today, most silicon-based solar cells can convert between 18 and 22 percent of the sunlight that hits them into usable solar energy, which has led to panels exceeding 400 watts of power. Higher efficiency = more energy, so high-efficiency solar panels generally will produce more electricity for your home. As of 2022, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the most efficient solar cell to date at 39.5 percent effi cie ncy.

    Number of solar cells and solar panel size

    To make things easy, we can divide solar panels into two size groups: 60-cell solar panels and 72-cell solar panels. Usually, 60-cell solar panels are about 5.4 feet tall by 3.25 feet wide and have an output of about 270 to 300 watts. On the other hand, 72-cell solar panels are larger because they have an extra row of cells, and their average output is somewhere between 350 to 400 watts. 72-cell panels are usually used on larger buildings and in commercial solar projects, not on residential homes.

    Environmental factors: shading, orientation, and hours of sunlight

    Solar panel efficiency and the number/size of solar cells in a solar panel are factors that directly impact the rated power of a solar panel. In the real world, there are a few more things that impact how much power a panel will actually produce:

    Shading of your solar panels will lead to lower production. Solar panel wattage ratings do not take into account the lowered output of a panel when there’s shade blocking the sun.

    Orientation of your solar panels also impacts production in a way that a panel’s output rating doesn’t capture. Ideally, your panels will be angled directly towards the sun. In practice, roof planes are almost never perfectly angled for maximum production.

    Hours of sunlight simply refer to the amount of time per day (or year) that your panels are exposed to sunlight. The more hours in the sun, the higher your actual output will be.

    How much energy will an entire solar panel system produce?

    Knowing how much energy a single solar panel produces is all well and good, but more importantly, how much solar power can your roof generate? Let’s do the math below:

    Take our example above, where you’re getting an average of five hours of direct sunlight per day (an average amount of sunlight for most areas of California) and using solar panels rated at 290 W. Let’s say you install 30 of those premium solar panels on your roof–that nets you an 8,700 watt, or 8.7 kW solar panel system, near the average system size purchased on the EnergySage Marketplace. Multiply the five direct sunlight hours we estimated above by 8.7 kW, and we get approximately 43.5 kWh of electricity produced per day. And for one final conversion, if we multiply 43.5 by 365 days in a year, we get approximately 15,800 kWh of electricity produced in a full calendar year from a rooftop array of 30 premium, 290 W solar panels. Considering that the yearly average for electrical power is around 10,600 kWh in the U.S., that’s probably more than enough to power your home on solar.

    Solar panel output and cost

    The output of a solar panel has a significant impact on its cost. This cost can vary based on where you live and what your needs are, but with data from the EnergySage Marketplace, we can get an idea of how much it could cost on average for 3kW, 4kW, 5kW, 6kW, 7kW, 8 kW, and 10kW solar systems. To find out how much this could be for you, simply find the average cost per watt in your area and multiply that by the output of the solar panel you have in mind.

    Solar panel output by product

    With so many solar panel manufacturers out there, panel output varies significantly between brands and products. In 2022, these are the top six solar panel brands in the U.S. ranked by their maximum power output panel:

    • First Solar (460 W)
    • LONGi (455 W)
    • REC (450 W)
    • SunPower (435 W)
    • Q CELLS (430 W)
    • Solaria (430 W)

    The table below presents a view of power output from many manufacturers supplying solar panels to the U.S. market. Because panel manufacturers often produce more than one line of solar panel models, the power output of most companies has a significant range. The table below lists the solar panels’ minimum, maximum, and average power outputs within each manufacturer’s portfolio.

    Electricity output (in Watts) of solar panel manufacturers

    Solar Panel ManufacturerMinimumMaximumAverage
    Amerisolar 240 330 285
    Astronergy 350 370 360
    Axitec 250 385 302
    BenQ Solar (AUO) 250 295 277
    Boviet Solar 320 340 330
    Canadian Solar 225 410 320
    CentroSolar 250 320 278
    CertainTeed Solar 70 400 308
    ET Solar 255 370 306
    First Solar 420 460 440
    GCL 310 330 320
    Grape Solar 160 285 237
    Green Brilliance 230 300 266
    Hansol 250 360 304
    Hanwha 365 385 375
    Heliene 250 370 306
    JA Solar 260 410 329
    JinkoSolar 315 410 367
    Kyocera 260 330 295
    LG 315 415 365
    LONGi 305 455 387
    Mission Solar Energy 300 390 334
    Mitsubishi Electric 270 280 275
    Neo Solar Power 310 330 320
    Panasonic 320 370 340
    Peimar 310 310 310
    Peimar Group 270 330 301
    Phono Solar 260 350 294
    QCELLS 285 430 358
    REC 275 450 347
    RECOM 265 370 308
    Recom Solar 310 350 330
    ReneSola 245 320 277
    Renogy Solar 250 300 268
    RGS Energy 55 60 58
    Risen 270 390 329
    S-Energy 255 385 334
    Seraphim 255 340 294
    Silfab 300 390 335
    Solaria 350 430 375
    Solartech Universal 310 325 318
    SunPower 320 435 355
    SunSpark Technology 310 310 310
    Talesun 275 415 365
    Talesun Solar Co. 400 400 400
    Trina 265 415 337
    Trina Solar Energy 260 320 288
    Upsolar 270 365 311
    Vikram Solar 320 340 330
    Winaico 325 340 332

    Why does solar panel output matter?

    Power output is an important metric for your home or commercial solar panel system. When you buy or install a solar photovoltaic (PV) energy system, the price you pay is typically based on the solar panel output of your system (expressed in watts or kilowatts).

    How do size and quantity impact output?

    Power output on its own is not a complete indicator of a panel’s quality and performance characteristics. Some panels’ high power output rating is due to their larger physical size rather than their higher efficiency or technological superiority.

    For example, if two solar panels both have 15 percent efficiency ratings, but one has a power output rating of 250 watts, and the other is rated at 300 watts, it means that the 300-watt panel is about 20 percent physically larger than the 250-watt panel. That’s why EnergySage and other industry experts view panel efficiency as being a more indicative criterion of solar panel performance strength than solar capacity alone.

    In practical terms, a solar panel system with a total rated capacity of 5kW (kilowatts) could be made up of either 20 250-Watt panels or 16 300-Watt panels. Both systems will generate the same amount of power in the same geographic location. Though a 5kW system may produce 6,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity every year in Boston, that same system will produce 8,000 kWh yearly in Los Angeles because of the amount of sun each location gets each year.

    The effect materials have on output

    The electricity generated by a solar PV system is governed by its rated power output, but it’s also dependent on other factors such as panel efficiency and temperature sensitivity, as well as the degree of shading that the system experiences and the tilt angle and azimuth of the roof on which it’s installed. As a general rule of thumb, it makes prudent financial sense to install a solar system with as much power output as you can afford (or that your roof will accommodate). That will ensure you maximize your savings and speed up the payback period of your solar energy system.

    Find out more about average for solar across the country for 3kW, 4kW, 5kW, 6kW, 7kW, 8 kW, and 10kW solar systems. The EnergySage Marketplace makes it easy for you to compare your savings from solar panels with various power output ratings.

    Common questions about how much energy a solar panel produces

    Because few people own just one solar panel, we talk more about the system output than individual solar panel output. Here are some of the questions we are frequently asked surrounding how much energy solar panels, and solar panel systems as a whole, generate.

    This depends on weather conditions, how much sunlight a location gets, and solar panel output. It would take about 27 solar panels to produce that much electricity in ideal conditions with the average solar panel.

    A panel of this size would produce between roughly 1.2kW to 2.5kW per day. Solar panel output and the amount of sunlight available will impact how much energy it produces.

    If exposed to the sun at least four hours a day, a system of this size can produce up to 20kWh per day.

    The average solar panel produces from 170 to 350 watts every hour, depending on the region and weather conditions. This works out to about 0.17 kWh to 0.35 kWh per solar panel.

    Explore your solar options today with EnergySage

    If you’re in the early stage of shopping for solar and would just like a ballpark estimate for an installation, try our Solar Calculator, which offers upfront cost and long-term savings estimates based on your location and roof type. For those looking to get and compare quotes from local contractors today, check out the EnergySage Marketplace.

    reading on EnergySage

    Looking to go solar? Here’s everything you need to know in… Best solar panels in 2023: Top products compared What are the most efficient solar panels? Top brands in 2023 Solar shingles: what you need to know in 2023 Are solar panels worth it in 2023?

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