0kW Solar Systems – What You Need To Know
If you’re a large business or run a small business with a large property and you’re considering a large commercial solar energy system you may have a lot of questions.
We’ve written this post to help answer some of those questions for you. After reading this, you should be a little bit closer to making a decision on whether a large-scale commercial solar energy system is right for your business.
So, let’s diver in with the big questions about large-scale commercial solar…
How big is a 100kW solar system?
If you are wondering how many panels are needed for a 100kw solar system – you can expect a solar energy system of that size to be around 400 panels. Each panel will measure 1 x 1.6 metres.
Doing the math, this is going to mean considerable mounting space, roughly 640 square m 2 of appropriate mounting space. This is where large, flat roofs can prove useful.
How much power does a 100kW solar system provide?
You can expect a 100kw system to produce roughly 350 to 450 kWh per day. If you’re a large business with significant electricity consumption and an annual power bill of about 50k, this could potentially reduce your energy bills by approximately 30%.
Nevertheless, this estimation is contingent upon various factors such as local climate conditions, seasonal variations, the quality of your system, and any potential obstacles to sunlight.
Case study for a 100kW solar system
Frankston Council selected Energy Makeovers as a partner to install a whopping 532kW solar energy system on the Peninsula Aquatic Recreation Centre. This installation included 1,047 Trina Solar panels and 4 x Sungrow 100kW inverters.
“The money saved on electricity costs from both of these sites will be used to deliver other important community services and projects.”
This system will now produce 639-megawatt hours of electricity, abating 614 tonnes of greenhouse gas emission.
How much does a 100kw solar system cost?
It really varies, dependent on:
To give you some kind of an answer that you can work with – let’s say 1.50 – 2 per watt.
Are there government incentives for 100kw solar systems?
There are Federal Government incentives for systems over 100kW through the Renewable Energy Target (RET). The RET splits into two:
- The Small Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES)
- The Large Scale Renewable Energy Target (LRET)
businesses can generate large-scale renewable energy certificates with solar energy installations over 100kW.
It’s a little complicated, as you are considered a ‘power station’ and you generate Large-scale generation certificates (LGCs) on an on-going basis. This means there isn’t an upfront rebate or subsidy available at purchase, but your system payback period is reduced over time.
Your rebate is based on how much energy your system generates – 1MWh equals 1 x Large Generation Certificate. Certificates are typically surrendered annually and traded through a broker. Without getting into the nitty gritty, we’ll use a 200kW system as an example, using today’s market on certificates. This example business could expect to make the following:
If you require initial support on the up-front cost due to your cash flow and business needs, you may instead need to reduce your solar energy system size below 100kW to take advantage of small-scale certificates (STCs), or the Victorian Solar Rebate for Business program.
So, it’s complicated, but you can see from the example above, it can provide a significant rebate, over time. If you need help understanding if your business could benefit from LGCs for a large-scale commercial solar energy system, our solar energy experts are happy to discuss your options.
Just get in touch – 1300 788 776. We have a commercial solar energy page with more information too.
There are no State Government incentives in Victoria for solar energy systems over 100kW.
Should I install less than 100kW to get STCs?
As above, if you opt for a solar energy system that is more than 99kW, it moves you into the LRET bracket and you become ineligible for STCs. STCs provide an upfront rebate through SRES. These are equal to approximately 370 per kW of solar you install.
Example: 99,9kW = 370 x 99.9 = 36,630
You can apply for multiple rebates per site, as long as it’s less than 100kW total. ie. install 50kW today, claim the rebate and install 40kW in the future and claim the rebate again. But, the combined figure is not 100kW.
So, you need to assess both options and decide which is right for your business.
Choose an Approved Solar Seller
Energy Makeovers are proud to be an Approved Seller through New Energy Tech. This means, as a customer, you can rest assured you’ve selected a solar energy supplier and installer with high standards and experience. It also means we are approved to pass eligible rebates on, as applicable.
This was previously referred to as the Clean Energy Council Approved Solar Retailer.
How Much Do Solar Panels Cost?
In this article, we attempt to answer that question to the best of our ability, but it’s important to remember that each solar system is a custom solution. The price can vary drastically from system to system.
It’s also important to understand what goes into determining the cost of a solar energy system. We dive into those components first, then provide the average installation cost for commercial and residential solar panels.
Factors that Impact the Cost of a Solar Panel Installation
Type of Installation
There are two main installation methods for solar: roof mounts and ground mounts. Roof mounts are attached to existing structures. Ground mounts and carports require additional posts that must be anchored into the ground. This often results in higher labor and component costs.
Type of Equipment
There are two basic variables with solar panels: power density and color. Power density is the amount of power that a solar panel can produce per unit of size. For example, a solar panel that is the same size may produce between 300-400 watts, depending on the power density. Generally speaking, the more power-dense the panel, the higher cost per watt. Color is the other variable with solar panels. The basic panel has a blue cell, white back sheet, and silver frame. Modules with a black frame, black back sheet, or black cell are generally more expensive.
There are three types of solar inverters: String, Micro, and Power Optimizers.
String Inverters link p anels together in one or more groups. Each group feeds into one string inverter, feeding several panels into one inverter. String inverters tend to be more cost-effective than other types of inverters.
Microinverters are installed on each individual panel. Although this type of inverter has its benefits, they tend to be the most expensive type of inverter.
Power optimizers have many of the benefits of micro-inverters. They are generally more expensive than string inverters but less expensive than micro-inverters.
Solar can be installed on metal, shingle, and flat roofs. Each one requires different components and varying levels of labor. Shingle roofs require a specific flashing piece to attach the panel racking to the roof. For a ribbed or standing seam metal roof, the racking is attached directly to the metal. Panels are installed on a flat roof using a ballast mount. a tray held in place by a concrete block.
Most solar systems are designed to offset as much energy consumption as makes sense financially. The more energy production needed, the more panels and equipment the system will require.
Depending on how much shading a system will be exposed to will impact the amount and location of the panels. If a system is installed in an area with shading, it may require additional panels to meet the customer’s energy coverage requirements. On the contrary, a system in full sun could produce the same amount of energy with fewer panels.
Weather patterns in each region are different. Some locations receive more sun than others. Other regions receive more snow. Our systems are designed with this data in mind, impacting the system size and the necessary equipment.
Interconnection is the process of connecting the solar system to the power grid. Each local utility has specific requirements that must be followed. Some of these requirements could impact the type of meter you need or whether transformer upgrades are required. The interconnection cost is different for each project, depending on how much solar is already in your area, the age and strength of the equipment on your line, and the size of the solar array itself.
Distance from the Solar Array to the Interconnection Point
Since the power produced by the solar array must be transported to the utility meter, the farther the solar array is from the interconnection point with the utility, the higher the installation cost will be. This is due to the conduit installation or trenching required, as well as the size of the wire required (the farther the distance the larger the wire is required to be).
Incentives available for solar panel installations
There are many incentives available for solar owners. These need to be considered when examining the cost of a solar system.
- Reduced monthly electric bills
- Protection from rising energy rates and independence from your utility company. You’re in control
- The 30% federal tax credit can be used to recover taxes from the prior three years and also carried forward 22 years for businesses and 12 years for homeowners
- Businesses and farms can quickly recover their investment through accelerated depreciation. Those who qualify can apply for a USDA Reap Grant and other local grants
- There are many local government and utility incentives
- It’s sustainable and good for the environment
With that in mind, we’ve listed below the average installation cost for commercial and residential solar energy systems.
The cost of solar panels for a business
The average size of a commercial solar system is between 50 kW (600/mo. electric bill) and 200 kW (1,200/mo. electric bill). Solar systems of this size will typically cost between 145,000 and 500,000 before incentives are utilized.
With the available incentives, most commercial solar owners could receive 60-90% of the system’s cost back within the first few years of installing the solar system.
The average agricultural and commercial solar owner can expect to save 150,000 to 375,000 over the 30 years of the solar system’s life.
Without solar, the average business and farmer will spend 240,000 to 715,000 on electricity over 30 years.
|Average MonthlyElectric Bill||Solar System Size||Total Installed Cost (Before Incentives)||Federal Tax Credit||Depreciation||Cost After the Tax Incentives|
The cost of solar panels for homeowners
The average size of a residential solar system is between 5 kW (60/mo. electric bill) and 10 kW (120/mo. electric bill). These solar systems will cost between 25,000 and 40,000 before incentives are utilized. Solar owners could receive 30% of the system’s cost back with the available incentives almost immediately after installation.
The average residential solar owner can expect to save 4,000 to 25,000 over the 30 years of a solar system’s life.
The average homeowner will spend 30,000 to 60,000 in electricity over 30 years without solar.
|Average MonthlyElectric Bill||Solar System Size||Total Installed Cost (Before Incentives)||Federal Tax Credit||Cost After Incentives|
Keep in mind these are average costs and system sizes for roof-mounted solar systems (Here’s what it costs to install a ground-mounted solar system). The cost will vary depending on your specific requirements. We provide free estimates that will provide you with the exact cost and available incentives to help you decide if solar is the right investment for your business, farm, and home.
Get the exact cost for a solar panel system that fits your needs
The best way to determine the cost of your solar system is to request a free custom quote. With a custom quote, you’ll see the complete installation cost, all available incentives, and the payback and ROI.
Not ready for a quote? Use our Solar Savings Calculator to get an instant estimate of how much money solar will save you.
You can also view The Solar Energy Channel on YouTube for short, educational videos that cover all things solar. Don’t forget to subscribe while you’re there!
Last updated on February 16, 2023.
Commercial properties and agricultural buildings require a significant amount of electricity to operate, which can be a major overhead for any business and affect its profitability.
These buildings and properties provide large, uncomplicated roof space which is ideal for a rooftop solar PV system and today, businesses are able to reduce their energy bills significantly with solar PV.
In the table below, we compare solar PV systems installed by Mypower between 2012 and 2021. Each system is of a similar size (100 kW) producing around 91,500 units p.a, using panels with a 25-year warranty and inverters with a 10-year warranty. The figures are based on 60% of the solar generated electricity being used on site by the businesses. With grid electricity supplied rising and a fall in supply and installation costs, it means that ROI and payback have improved.
NB: These are year 1 figures, the FiT increases by RPI and the Savings by electricity inflation. currently around 7%, improving ROI in future years.
The reduction in the FiT subsidy to zero over the years is offset by the increased efficiency of the panels, reduced cost of the system and significantly increased grid electricity costs. Ben Harrison MRICS, who heads up solar installers Mypower, explained: “The saving between grid and solar electricity, including operating and maintenance costs, is now more than 5 times what it was in 2012, which is why FiT subsidy is no longer required. The cost of a solar PV system is 50% less than it was in 2012, making it available to more businesses as an affordable investment.”
Will electricity continue to rise?
Energy experts have carried out extensive research on the future of non-commodity costs within an electricity bill, and their workings show that these costs alone are set to increase over the next five years. This means that even if the wholesale electricity cost remains static, bills will increase by 33% in the next 5 years!
Ben also outlined: “With such dramatic electricity price increases, solar is no longer about payback or ROI, it’s about being in control of your own supply of electricity at a price around 70% less than grid electricity.
“For those who still measure everything in payback time, remember the panels are warranted for 25 years. That’s payback of 2 years on equipment lasting 5 years with 3 years of “free” production, or solar with a payback of 7 years and 18 years of “free” production.”
The graph below depicts a projected rise in charges that you can expect to see on your business’ electricity bill:
What are non-commodity costs?
The unit rate on your electricity bill, while not usually broken down on the bill, is divided into two main elements. the wholesale costs of electricity (the commodity) and non-commodity costs. Although there are regular fluctuations in the electricity markets, the split between commodity and non-commodity costs is approximately 50:50. Non-commodity costs include governement levies, tarrifs and third party charges. The chart below provides an indicative illustration of the typical costs.
Why the increase?
As you may be aware, the UK’s electricity infrastructure is strained and the network (National Grid) is being pushed to capacity. This, combined with a global push to reduce emissions and energy consumption in general, means that you will see an increase in taxes and charges and will pay more for delivering electricity to your premises via the network.
What does this mean for businesses looking to install solar?
Businesses like predictability, especially when it comes to purchasing inputs. With solar, you can forward-buy a significant chunk of your next 25 years’ worth of input at a fixed price of around a third of what you currently pay. It won’t go up, you have no storage costs and, if you ever decide you don’t need any of it, you get your money back (export to the grid). How many businesses would like to buy all their inputs like this?
Solar power is a cost-effective, low maintenance and reliable supply of energy which is protected against price rises and works alongside grid supplied electricity. Average payback length is 5-6 years and a solar investment can be cash flow positive in as little as 2 years. With low interest rates and additional tax benefits, solar is therefore viewed as a low risk investment.
Ben Harrison explained: “Matching the daytime generation from the panels to the electricity demand from the building is the most efficient way to use solar. The energy produced on site is actually used at the premises, meaning that the business needs to import less energy from the grid. Quality solar panels are guaranteed to deliver a 25-year linear power output which means businesses can accurately predict the cost they will pay for each unit of electricity for the next 25 years. The lifetime of solar panels are estimated to be much longer, at around 40 years. A 50kW solar PV system using 70% of the generation on site can expect a projected first year income and savings of £5,700, giving a first year return on capital of 18% before indexation. Any unused energy can be sold back to the National grid.”
Monssi – 70kW solar PV system install by Mypower
There can be additional tax benefits. Solar systems are classed as plant and machinery, so can be eligible for capital allowances. i.e for the capital cost to be written off against profits in the first year. In such a case, a farming partnership paying 40% tax can often claim back from HMRC 40% of the cost of the solar installation in their next tax return. This can mean a £45,000 investment effectively costs the business just £27,000, making the first year return on capital significantly higher at around 28% with a 3-year pay back, and the cost of producing electricity significantly lower, at around 3p per unit.
In addition to all the financial benefits, a business can significantly reduce its carbon footprint. Some businesses have won major contracts assisted by the added “green credentials” gained after installing solar panels, while others have reduced their carbon footprint to help maintain existing business relationships. A 50 kW solar PV system will help a business to reduce its CO2 emissions by over 20 tonnes per annum. They can also promote their environmental saving contributions in marketing literature and a display screen onsite.
Generating your own energy is the future. By 2025 the Government are planning to close all coal fire power stations. With solar power becoming the cheapest form of electricity, combined with today’s low interest rates to finance an installation, now is the time for your business to invest in solar.
Delaney Mackay Lewis Ltd. Commercial Landlord
Goodridge Business Park is home to a number of commercial units owned by Delaney Mackay Lewis Ltd. As a part of their refurbishment programme, Delaney Mackay Lewis were looking to make the site attractive to potential tenants. This included improving the site’s environmental credentials with a 250kW Solar PV system.
Far Peak Eco Park. Gloucestershire
Far Peak Business Park is located near Northleach. Mypower designed and installed a 49.83kWp, making maximum use of the available roof space. Utilising the 30% grant available (saving £11K) in Gloucestershire, Far Peak will achieve an 22.8% ROI
Mypower are a highly experienced award winning team who consult, design, supply and install solar PV for agricultural and commercial solar panel clients. We work with companies to help them significantly reduce their electricity bills, secure their energy, future-proof their electricity costs and reduce their carbon footprint. Delivering quality work with the highest customer service is at the heart of our business. The solar PV panels we install are high yielding, very efficient and award-winning, so our customers achieve the maximum production and returns from their solar installation. In addition, we work with consultants to renegotiate each customer’s electricity price with their suppliers as a free-of-charge service.
For more information and friendly, helpful advice
Keep track on what we’ve been up to and join the conversation on clean, green, renewable energy on our LinkedIn, Instagram, and !
- General Information
- About us
- Site map
- Solar Panel Cleaning
- Solar PV Monitoring
SESS 100KW Off Grid Solar System with Battery
Off grid solar system includes everything for a complete installation: solar panel, solar bracket, solar battery, three phase solar inverter, solar charge controller, cables and other terminals. 100KW solar system with battery DC384V to AC380V/400V optional, and has 610560Wh energy storage every day.
- Type : Three Phase Off Grid Solar System
- Place of Origin : Foshan, Guangdong, China
- Brand : XINDUN POWER
- MOQ : 1 pcs
- OEM : Yes
Choose XINDUN off grid solar system with battery, you can get the following convenience:
Complete solar solutions including all components. Professional configuration. Time-saving on the selection. Convenient after-sales maintenance: solar panels, batteries, three phase hybrid solar inverter, all duties to one company.
Factory wholesales 100kw off grid solar system at cheapest price and cost.
■ 100KW Solar System with Battery Description
Xindun off grid solar system is the most complete configuration on the market, which includes all necessary components: solar panel, solar bracket, PV combiner box, solar battery, three phase solar inverter, solar charge controller, pv cables, battery cables and other terminals. After the simple installation is complete, it can be directly used for residential appliances.
Each set off grid solar system with battery has power onoff test 100 times per hour. Each step of production is under strict quality control. Perfect protection: short circuit, over-voltage, low-voltage, overload, insulation resistance, high temperature protection.
Xindun off grid solar system with battery range is from 300W to 100KW. We provide customers with free solar solution design and can accept customization. This page introduces the 100kw solar system with battery, which can be used for industries with total power not exeed 100kw.
■ 100KW Solar System with Battery Configuration
|SESS33-104W 100KW Off Grid Solar System Configuration|
|Brand||Xindun||Model No.||SESS33-104W||Inverter Rated Power （ KW)||100|
|Maximum Load(KW)||100||Batter Capacity(AH)||19200||Solar Panel Power(W)||63360|
|Product No.||SESS33-104W||Certification||CE||Sunshine Duration||6|
|Output Voltage (Optional)||Three phase380V||Frequency (Optional)||50Hz/60Hz||PV daily generating capacity （ Wh ）||380160|
|Actual Load （ KW)||100||Actual Load day(s)||1||Actual Load time(hours)||3.8|
|G.W.||Contact Xindun||Volume||Contact Xindun||20GP Loading Quantity||Contact Xindun|
|N.W.||Contact Xindun||DC Voltage(VDC)||384||Customized or not||YES|
|Solar Panel||Polycrystalline 330W||192||16pcs in series ， 12 groups in parallel|
|Three Phase Solar inverter||384VDC 100KW||1||HDSX-104384|
|Solar Charge Controller||384VDC 100A||2||MPPT solar charge controller|
|Lead acid battery||12V200AH||96||32in series ， 3 groups in parallel|
|Battery connecting cable||70mm² 60CM||95||connection between batteries|
|solar panel mounting bracket||Aluminum||16||Simple type|
|PV combiner||3in1out||4||Specifications ： 1000VDC|
|Lightning protection distribution box||without||0|
|battery collecting box||200AH32||3|
|M4 plug (male and female)||180||180 pairs 1 in 1 out|
|PV Cable||4mm²||400||PV Panel to PV combiner|
|PV Cable||10mm²||200||PV combiner to Solar inverter|
|Battery cable||70mm² 10m/pcs||42||Solar Charge Controller to battery and PV combiner to Solar Charge Controller|
|Electrical Load Reference List|
|Electrical Appliance||Rated Power(pcs)||Quantity(pcs)||Working Hours||Total|
|Mobile phone charger||10W||4||2Hours||80W|
|Satellite dish receiver||150W||1||4Hours||600W|
|A4 copier (printing and copying combined)||1500W||1||1Hours||1500W|
■ 100KW Solar System with Battery Wiring Diagram
Contact XINDUN for more high-definition wiring diagram.
■ 100KW Solar System with Battery Parts List
12-years warranty on materials and workmanship.
3 times peak power, excellent loading capability.
LVD/HVD/Charging voltage adjutable, suitable for kinds of battery.
Automatic AC charger and AC mains switcher, switch time ≤ 4ms.
AC charging current 0-45A selectable.
GEL series battery is manufactured with special separators and silica gel immobilizing the electrolyte inside the battery.
The proven silica gel technology can improve battery cycle life and performance at wider temperature range.
The deep discharge cycle life is increased 50% compared with the GP series battery.
Battery collecting box(Built-in 12V/200Ah96pcs batteries) not only makes the batteries collection and sorting more neat, but also plays a protective role
PV combiner box:
Multiple PV strings inputs.
Cables and parts:
4mm2 PV cable 400m, 10mm2 PV cable 200m. PV cable is a special type of cable used in solar power system. It has the characteristics of high temperature resistance and friction resistance, and has a long service life.
70mm2 60cm Battery cable 95pcs (connection between batteries).
70mm2 10m Battery cable 42pcs (connection PV combiner box to solar charge controller and solar charge controller to batteries).
Terminals and 180 pairs MC4 plug.
■ Solar System with Battery in Real Production
■ Off Grid Solar System with Battery Application
10kw off grid solar system with battery in China :
24kw off grid solar system with battery in Thailand:
25kw off grid solar system with battery in Egypt:
40kw off grid solar system with battery in Morocco :
50kw off grid solar system with battery in Philippines :
Xindun off grid solar systems with batteries have been sold to more than 100 countries, such as America, Nigeria, Ghana, Egypt, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Lebanon, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Columbia, Mexico etc. 100kw solar systems have been widely used for high power solar industry, solar data center, solar school project, solar hospital project, solar farm project, solar hotel project, solar millitary project, solar energy water treatment equipment project, solar goverment project, hilltop, ship, etc.
■ About Xindun Power
■ Off Grid Solar System with Battery Factory
■ Qualifications and Certificates
■ Global Solar Exhibitions
Q1: Are you a factory? A: Yes, we are the top 10 power supply manufacturers in China, with over 10k square meters production area. We FOCUS on off grid solar system solution, inverters, solar charge controllers, solar generators and UPS power supply. We cooperate with some famous brands all over the world, can provide OEM/ODM production.
Q2: Is the off grid solar system solution always the same? Can I customize one? A: We have professional teams making solar solutions for our clients. Solutions are mainly customized based on different sunshine time and power consumption. So each set off grid solar system may have different configuration. We\’d be happy to customize for you, contact XINDUN to know more details.
Q3: What is the price of off grid solar system? A: Tell me your requirements, such as power generation demand, configuration, and whether there are other functional requirements. We will give you the most favorable ex factory price. off grid solar system factory direct sales, no middlemen earn price difference.
Q4: What is the lifetime of the off grid solar system? A: Solar panel’s lifetime are 20 years, solar inverters 3~5 years, solar charge controllers 3~5 years, batteries 1~3 years.
Q5: What services can XINDUN provide? A: We will provide off grid solar system free site survey, design, production, installation guide, maintenance of one-stop service, value added services: market and product training services, 24 hours after-service consultancy just for you and to make your problem to solveeasily.
What Does Commercial Solar Cost in Ohio?
If you’re considering solar for your Ohio-based business, now is a good time to make the switch.
for solar in Ohio have dropped 47% in the last year alone (as of Q2 2018). This drop in cost means you break even faster and start generating free electricity sooner.
A 50 kW to 100 kW commercial solar system typically costs between 130,000 and 250,000 before financial incentives are applied. With available incentives, you could recoup 26% to 75% of the system’s cost within the first year.
The average commercial solar system can save you 100,000 to 350,000 over the 30 years of the solar system’s life.
Average Commercial Payback and ROI in Ohio
These numbers are averages based on projects we have completed in Ohio.
Payback is the amount of time to re-coup up-front costs. ROI is the annual rate of return over a 30-year period.
Ohio Tax Incentives
A Real-World Example From Ohio
To illustrate a cost situation, we’ve highlighted nüCamp, a manufacturer of RVs and teardrop trailers based in Sugarcreek, OH.
- 1,909 solar panels and 15 inverters
- 629.7 kW system
- 643,527 kWh (First year production)
Will Solar Panels Work in Ohio?
The short answer is yes. But first, let’s explore a bit about how we estimate solar production.
Solar power estimates are based on a measurement called a Peak Sun Hour (PSH). A PSH represents the amount of solar energy available during a day. The average PSH in Ohio is 4.15 hours per day (based on fixed-tilt solar panels).
For comparison, look at Germany.
Germany is not known as a sun-drenched country. However, Germany has long been a leader in global solar output. In 2014, Germany produced 177 GW from solar power (1 GW is about equal to the output of a large natural gas or nuclear power plant.)
Peak Sun Hours (PSH) in Ohio Cities
Notable Commercial Solar Installations in Ohio
Campbell’s Soup in Napoleon. Solar installation provides 15% of the facility’s electricity.
Assurant in Springfield. Added 6,200 solar panels on rooftops and 15 new parking canopies.
Solar Resources for Ohio Businesses
Ohio Solar Statistics and PoliciesSEIA. Ohio Solar Policy
Find Out If Solar Makes Financial Sense For Your Business
The first step to making a great solar investment is to receive a no-obligation custom quote. We’ll evaluate your current energy usage, conduct a site assessment, go over financing options and incentives, and provide you with a free detailed quote that shows the cost, ROI, and a year-to-year cash flow.